Create
Learn
Share

Peds random high yield

rename
mikenakhla's version from 2016-07-25 15:24

Section

Question Answer
• Neonatal tooth if loose?should be extracted by pediatric dentist to prevent aspiration
• HCT difference of 15% or more between twins?twin twin transfusion syndrome. Sx of hyperviscocity, hyperbilirubinemia
• Complications of cleft lip/palate? When do you repair each?recurrent otitis media, hearing loss, speech defects. Repair lip at 2-3 months, palate at 6m to 5 years
• Propranolol use in pregnancy can causegrowth retardation. Also decreases newborn's ability to increase HR/CO if asphyxiated
• What do you use for labor pain control in narcotic woman ?demerol
• What is a subgaleal (or subaponeurotic hemorrhage)? What sx will baby have?similar to cephalohematoma but crosses the midline!!!! Baby will have signs of hypovolemia (eg tachy) b/c of hemorrhage. Transfer them to NICU
• Determining of bleeding in the newborn is from baby or mom?use apt-downey test. Fetal hemoglobin is alkali resistant
• Most abx are safe for breastfeeding except fortetracyclines.
• Breastfeeding infection contraindicationsactive TB or HIV
• What is acrocyanosis in a baby? What is cutis marmorata?mottling of skin with venous predominence. Baby will have vasomotor instability
• Differentiate this from herpes or impetigo. Happens in black babies, transient rash characterized by dry vesicles over dark basepustular melanosis, eosinophil filled
• Nevus flammeus AKAport wine stain. Can be associated with sturge weber especially if over CN V1 (trigeminal)
• Premature skull fusioncraniosynostosis
• Baby with goiter, think thismom taking antithyroidal meds or maternal thyroid stimulating auto antibodies
• Postnatal hematoma, fixed position in utero can cause thisneonatal torticollis
• Agenesis of pectoralis musclepoland syndrome
• This is benign - separation of rectus abdominius at midlinediastasis recti
• Persistent urachusurine dripping from bladder to umbilicus
• Cysts between labia caused by imperofrate hymenhydrometrocolpos
• Epispadias vs hypospadis, which is associated with bladder extrophy?epispadia
• Absent or hypoplastic radia, think thisTAR syndrome (thrombocytopenia, absent radii) or fanconi anemia
• Edema of feet with hypoplasti nails, think these two syndromesTurner & noonan syndrome
• Diffuse reticular granular pattern on X ray in newbornrespiratory distress syndrome (RDS) - this is basically surfactant deficiency. Mostly in PRETERM infants
• Chronic disease (complication of RDS)broncho pulmonary dysplasia - needing supplemental O2 for >28days, mechanical ventillation within first two weeks
• Term infant with respiratory distress, think this. Vs preterm? Vs posterm?term infant - think persistent pulmonary HTN (especially w C section). If preterm think RDS. If posterm think meconium aspiration syndrome
• What causes persistent pulmonary hypertension?perinatal asphyxia, meconium aspiration syndrome, any cause of fetal distress. Basically defined as any anything that causes low blood flow to the lungs besides congenital heart disease
• CXR findings with meconium aspiration syndromediffuse patchy atelectasis with parenchymal infiltrates. Increased lung volume. Loss of lung markings
• Treatment for Meconium aspiration syndrome?endotracheal suction after delivery
• What causes apnea of prematurity?immature respiratory center, so baby has respiratory pause > 20 seconds
• Soap bubble appearance on abdominal x ray?intestinal obstruction, usually meconium. Trapped air in meconium looks like that apparently
• Islet cell hyperplasia causing persistent hypoglycemia?nesidioblastosis
• Laryngomalacia vs vascular rings?vascular is persistent stridor, improves with neck extension. Laryngomalacia is inspiratory stridor
• Prophylax for non immunized for epiglottitis?rifampin
• Croup CXR findings?steeple sign - subglottic narrowing
• Always try this before intubation for croupracemic epinephrine
• How do you diagnose bronchiolitis (RSV)?viral antigen/antibody testing.
• Treatment of empyema?vanco b/c of resistance
• Most common cause of afebrile pneumonia, "staccato" cough? Diagnosis/Treatment?chlamydia trachomatis. Diagnosis is direct fluorescent antibodies. Tx with Erythromycin
• Diagnosis of pertusis?culture on regan lowe or bordet-gengou.
• Tx of pertusis/contacts?erythromycin for all contacts
• Transient tachypnea of the newborn - risk factor? relieved with what? CXR findings?supplemental O2. Risk factor is C section. Prominent pulmonary markings on CXR
• Risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity?prematurity (duh) and supplemental O2, given to RDS babies
• Ebstein anomaly can be a cause of SVT (supraventricular tachycardia)ablate the pathways causing this
• Congenital 3rd degree heart block?mom probs had lupus
• Jervell-Lange-Nielson vs Romano Ward?Jervell is deaf, this is auto recessive. Romano isn't deaf, he's dominant
• Antibiotics are NOT INDICATED to treat HUS caused by E coli shiga toxinjust know this
• Proximal (Type II) RTA is associated withFanconi syndrome. This is decreased bicarb reabsorption by proximal tubules
• Increased incidence of renal vein thrombosis in infants ofdiabetic mothers
• Prune belly syndrome?absence of rectus muscles, bladder outlet obstruction, cryptorchidism.
• WAGR syndrome?Wilm's tumor, Aniridia (absence of iris), GU anomalies, Retarded.
• Circumcision is contraindicated with this defecthypospadias, skin used in repair
• If a kid has periauricular pits or fails hearing screen, what should you look for?get a renal US, these are associated with renal structural abnormalities
• Treatment for central DI? Nephrogenic?central is vasopressin, nephrogenic won't respond to vasopressin so give thiazide diuretics (for some reason this works)
• Poly or oligohydramnios with duodenal atresia?poly
• What is sandifer syndrome?torticollis with arching of the back from painful esophagitis, usually with really bad GERD
• Study of choice for malrotation or midgut volvulusupper gI series
• Sausage shaped mass in RUQ, targe sign on USintussception
• Gold standard for intussusception?air/contrast enema
• Treatment for mild necrotizing enterocolitis (eg no perf)decompression, electrolytes, IV antibiotics. If severe, surgical resection
• Treatment for neonatal hepatitis?will have hepatomegaly and jaundice within first week of life. Self limited but can use ursodeoxycholic acid
• Polysplenia syndrome with biliary atresia?bilobed lungs, abdominal heterotaxy, situs invertus
• Hemihyperplasia, macroglossia, associated with wilms tumor and hepatoblastomabeckwith Wiedmann syndrome. Predisposted to neoplasms
• Severe form of listeria with granuloma formation and tissue destructiongramulomatosis infantiseptica
• Vasomotor collapse during meningitis infection?waterhouse friderichsen
• Different agars for HIB vs Ecoli vs N meningitidis infections?chocolate, macconkey, thayer martin
• Treatment for meningitis in newborns (up to 28days)? Young infants (1-3 months)? Older than 3 months?amp/gent or cefotaxime. Ampicillin + cefotaxime + vanco if suspected bacterial. Older than 3 months give cefotaxime + vanco
• Complication of URI causing neurologic deficits, possible increased ICP, persistent fever, seizurescerebral abscess. Need augmentin treatment!
• Treatment for iptheria?oral erythromycin or penicillin, + antitoxin and isolate them
• Don’t have to treat ear infection if 2 or older and nonsevere, but if it worsens, treat within 48-72 hoursjust know this
• Cervical lymphadenitis can be caused by cat scratch disease. Nontender local lymphadnopathy with papules at scratch sitetender with other bacterial infections (staph aureus and strep pyogenes most common)
• Treatment for impetigotopical muprinocin or oral
• Treatment for scalded skin syndromeIV oxacillin or naficillin
• Treatment for scarlet feverGroup A strep - treat with oral penicillin VK or erythromycin or macrolide if penicillin allergic. Abx don't prevent PSGN but prevent rheumatic fever.
• Test of choice to diagnose HIV in infant < 18m?DNA PCR because if just testing antibody, maternal Ab's will interfere
• Rubella sxpainful lymphadenopathy, Mild URI with low grade fever, then exanthem following adnopathy. Begins on face and spreads to trunk.
• Measles sxFour C's - cough, conjunctivitis, coryza. Koplik spots . Those spots show up before the exanthem that begins around neck/ears then spreads.
• Treatment of TB in kids with no sign of disease? With pulmonary disease on CXR?start isoniazid prophylaxis even if PPD negative. If repeat TB test negaitve in 8 to 12 weeks, discontinue. If CXR positive, 6 months of isoniazid/rifampin and 2 months of pyrazinamide and ethambutol
• Treatment of rocky mountain spotted fever?doxy regardless of age
• Rheumatic fever prophylaxisdaily oral penicillin to prevent valvular disease
• Give this to GBS+ woman who's allergic to penicillinCefazolin
• Earliest sign of anticholinergic toxicity?tachycardia
• Need early dental evaluation when there's passive tobaco smoke exposurejust know this
• Malaria prophylaxis for P falciparum (africa) vs P. Vivax (asia)atovaquone-proguanil for africa, primaquine for Asia
• This is an ionotrope and PDE3 inhibitor that improves both systolic and diastolic functionmilrinone
• When do you start BP screening?age 3
• Episodes of rapid heartbeat that occur at least once a day, not associated with activity, commonly in a teenreentry tachy involving AV node
• Sx of hypoplastic left heart syndromecyanosis, pulmonary edema, severe acidosis, single S2 sound b/c of atrial atresia
• Kid hit with baseball in chest and dies - what is this called and what's happening?commotio cordis - the baseball interrupted ventricular repolarization and lead to V fib
• This shunts oxygenated blood from placenta to the IVC by bypassing the liverductus venosus
• This allows blood to bypass fetal lungsductus arteriosis. Brings blood from pulmonary artery to aorta
• Cardiomegaly, Egg shaped heart with narrowed mediastinumtransposition of great vessels
• Major cardiac finding in marfan syndromedilatation of the aortic root or ascending aorta
• Maternal use of isotretinoin can cause this heart conditiontruncus arteriosus
• When do you give prophylactic abx for endocarditis with dental procedure?those with prosthetic valves or cyanotic heart disease
• This is like Turner syndrome but has pulmonary stenosis instead of coarctation and it can be in mennoonan syndrome. Defect of genes on chromosome 12
• Neonate can't metabolize glucose, lethargic, sleep more. Treat with frequent feeding, carninitineMCAD (medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase)
• Nodules on joints, vocal cords, severe mental/motor retardation. Labs show ceramidase deficiencyfarber disease
• N/V, hx of ovarian cyst, young woman, sudden onset unilateral lower pain. NO FEVERovarian torsion
• First sign of Turner's syndrome in a neonatebilateral edema of feet
• Bacteria that causes pimples in teenagerspropionibadterium acnes
• Treatment for epididymitis?ceftriaxone
• What age is the concept of death as final obtained?6
• When does infant start babbling?6 months
Weight paramter to diagnose FTTweight below 3rd percentile
• C section and diabetic mothers predisposes to what respiratory disordertransient tachypnea of the newborn
• C section delivery and diabetic mom predisposes to this respiratory disordertransient tachypnea of the newborn
• Isolated high fevers in 2 year old or so followed by eruption of rash that fades within 24 hoursroseola
• Low pituitary hormones decreased and optic nerve hypoplasia and nystagmus in a one month old malesepto optic dysplasia
• Order this test to diagnose premature pubarche (first appearance of pubic hair)DHEA-S level
• Congenital absence of uterus and upper vagina due to arrest Mullerian duct developmentmayer-Rokitansky syndrome
memorize