Peds Final (2)

anskorczewski12's version from 2018-05-06 01:31

learning disability and AT

Question Answer
Dysgraphiaaffects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. Problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at the same time.
Dyslexiaaffects reading and related language-based processing skills. The severity can differ in each individual but can affect reading fluency, decoding, reading comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and sometimes speech and can exist along with other related disorders.
Dyscalculia(visual/spatial often, difficulty reading the numbers) affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts. Individuals with this type of LD may also have poor comprehension of math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty telling time, or have trouble with counting.
Visual perceptual/visual motor deficitaffects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy. A characteristic seen in people with learning disabilities such as Dysgraphia or Non-verbal LD, it can result in missing subtle differences in shapes or printed letters, losing place frequently, struggles with cutting, holding pencil too tightly, or poor eye/hand coordination
Specific learning disabilitynot the same as intellectual disability
Average intelligence75-125 IQ
OTs role in learning disabilityusually in the school, add motor to the practice (finding letters in the gym), sort out the client factors (body awareness, visual perception, memory, strength, vision, motor planning, EF, attention)
SETT frameworkstudent, environment, task, tool (developed for school settings, looks at the characteristics of the tool)
Benefits of computers for young childrenprovide choice making opportunities, cognitive engagement, facilitate communication interactions
Low-tech, mid-tech, and high-tech optionsLow tech (Built up foam handles, slant boards, or visual schedules) Mid-tech (Adapted keyboards and switches, screen magnifiers, word prediction software), High-tech (Electric wheelchairs, robotics, augmentative communication devices, specialized computer software and smart boards)
Reasons for technology abandonmentpoor fit between user and AT, failure to consider user’s preferences, desires, barriers incorrectly assessed (training, planning, funding, time)

Trauma Induced Conditions, FAS, and mobility

Question Answer
Stages of trauma therapyacute, rehabilitative, community re-integration
Which SCI level is most commonly impacted in childrenupper cervical injury (weight of head is still too big)
Support for caregivers making medical decisionsassess readiness prior to therapy participation, use family-friendly language and instructions (hands-on education)
Autonomic storming
Orthostatic hypertension
What kind of environment should you use with TBIlow stimulation environment
Glasgow coma scale for mild brain injurybetween 13-15 (localized has better outcomes than diffuse)
Which device is appropriate for a child who has upper extremity function to push and pull wheels but limited lower extremity movementmobile stander
When do kids bear full wt. on feetby 7 months
Classification of mobility1. Never ambulate 2.inefficient mobility (decreased endurance/speed), 3. Lost independent mobility 4. Temporarily require assisted mobility
GMFC levels1 (no limitations) 2 (walks with limitations) 3 (uses hand-held mobility device) 4 (self-mobility with limitations) 5 (transported in w/c)
ATPassistive tech professional
Prone vs. supine standers
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder diagnosisneed all three facial abnormalities, growth deficits, and abnormalities in CNS, along with documented alcohol exposure during pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Syndromemost involved end of the FASD spectrum; might have abnormal facial features, growth problems, and central nervous system (CNS) problems, problems with learning, memory, attention span, communication, vision, or hearing, often have a hard time in school and trouble getting along with others
Behaviors we may see with FAS/FASDcognition impacts (attention, EF, STM), classroom performance, motor, sensory and soft neurological signs, language, social communication, adaptation
Intervention for FASenvironmental scans/create better match between environment (behaviors are from how they manage the environment), sequential oral sensory approach (SOS), tools for tots, handwriting without tears

social, school, and early intervention

Question Answer
Elements of social skills groupchildren and parents set goals, receive immediate feedback, consistent and predictable format and rules should be agreed on and posted, parents should receive intensive training and home programs
Purpose of scales and thermometershelp children recognize, quantify, and describe different levels of their emotions and behaviors
Social intervention optionsprivacy circles (for those 5-18), sensory integration, social stories, peer-mediated intervention (partners), Video modeling, power cards, mind reading, SOCCSS
Conditions associated with behavioral challengesAutism, ADHD, anxiety, mood, fetal alcohol, conduct, oppositional defiant
SOCCSSaddressing theory of mind limitations by assisting in identifying problem situations, solutions, consequences (Situation, options, choices, consequences, strategies, simulation)
Social storieshelp kids who take things literally understand concepts and develop social skills, typically one story addresses one skill, can use visual aids (photos/diagrams)
At what age do children pretend12-18 months engage in symbolic play
Family-centered carerequires that professionals collaborate and listen to the family and work on family goals and priorities. As such, being flexible, listening to the family, and respecting their culture and views are principles of this model
Which part of idea is for 0-2.11part C
Type of intervention provided in natural environmentintegrative/integrated service delivery
Role of OT in school (by IDEA)Enhance the child’s role as a student in academic and nonacademic tasks
IDEAfederal law, requires states and public educational agencies to provide a free and appropriate public education to children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment, parents can request a formal evaluation when desired
EISearly intervening services (part B for 5-21) a formal system for intervening for kids before they get into special ed services (those “at risk”), OT may be preventing
FAPEfree and appropriate public education (all students should have free ed. that is appropriate to that student and with other children)
Non-categorical vs. categoricalcategory depends on the impairment, need a category once 7 years of age (before they may have “developmental disability”)
Direct vs. indirect servicedirect (face to face) indirect (consultation/coaching, observation in classroom)
NCLBno child left behind, close student achievement gaps by providing all children with fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education (changed to every student succeeds)
504 planaccommodations for students no qualifying for special ed (no money covered for it)
Part B vs. part CC (OT can be direct provider and stand alone, but not primary service provider, uses IFSP) B (OT is a related service, IEP used), family concerns and needs go on IFSP, not IEP
Response to intervention(RtL) three tier approach to the early identification and support of students with learning and behavior needs (bottom: whole class, middle: small group, top: referrals to special ed)
Transdisciplinary modelhas one primary interventionist and a team
Document outlining early intervention servicesIFSP
Intervention strategies for early interventionroutine-based (work within the routines the family has), incidental learning (use consequences during typical activities)