Pediatrics ID

eesohbel's version from 2015-12-05 22:11

General infectious disease

Question Answer
treatment for acute otitis mediahigh dose amoxi
treatment for resistant cases of acute otitis mediaamoxicillin/clavulonic
most common cause of bronchiolitisRSV
most common cause of croupparainfluenza
tachypnea, wheezing, crackles and hyperresonance to percussionbronchiolitis
when to use RSV prophylaxiswith injectable poly or monoclonal antibodies. Recommended in high risk patients less than 2 years old.
treatment for bronchiolitisa trial of aerosolized albuterol may be attempted
treatment for mild cases of croupoutpatient management
treatment for moderate cases of croupIM corticosteroids and nebulized racemic epi
treatment for severe cases of croup aka inspiratory stridorhosptalize and give nebulized racemic epi
steeple sign croup
thumb print signepiglottitis
acute onset high fever, dysphagia, drooling, inspiratory retractionsepiglottis
diagnosis of epiglottitisairway most before secured before a definitive diagnosis is made
cause of epiglottisH. flu
age of retropharyngeal abscess6 months to 6 years of age
age of pertionsillar abscessusually greater than 10 years of age
widened prevertebral spaceretropharyngeal abscess

ToRCHeS infections

Question Answer
chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracanial calcifications, and or blueberry muffin rashtoxo
PDA, cataracts deafness and/or blueberry muffin rashrubella
hearing loss, chorioretinis, seizures, petechial rach, periventricular calcifications and blueberry muffin rash, hepatosplenomegalyCMV
encephalitis. no defects at birthHSV-2
CNVIII deafness, facial abnormalititessyphillitis
what do you give to an HIV positive women during pregnancy to reduce transmissionHAART, intrapartum AZT, c-section, avoid breast feeding
neonatal encephalitis acquired howtypically through the birth canal. usually involves temporal lobes
varicellalimb hypoplasia, cataracts, microcephaly

Bugs affecting unimmunized kids

Question Answer
RashRubella - head→down w. postauricular lymphadenopathy
Measles - head→down w preceding cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik spots on buccal mucosa
MeningitisH. influenza type B - microbe colonizes nasopharynx
Poliovirus - also myalgias and paralysis
PharyngitisCorynebacterium diphtheriae - gray throat - toxin causes necrosis in pharynx, cardiac, and CNS tissue
EpiglottitisH. influenzae type B - fever w dysphagia, drooling, and difficulty breathing d/t edematous "cherry red" epiglottis. Thumbprint sign on x-ray

Red Rashes of Childhood

Question Answer
Rubella virusTogavirus
Rash: begins at head → moves down into fine truncal rash - lasts 3 days
Postauricular lymphadenopathy
Measles RubeolaA paramyxovirus
Rash begins at head and moves down
Rash preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, blue-white (Koplik) spots on buccal mucosa
Vesicular rash begins on trunk → spreads to face and extremities with lesions of different ages
Macular rash all over body after several days of high fever
can present with febrile seizures
usually affects infants
Parvovirus B19Erythema infectiosum
"Slapped cheek" rash on face
Can cause hydrops fetalis in pregnant women
Strep pyogenesScarlet fever
Erythematous, sandpaper-like rash with fever and sore throat
Coxsackievirus type APicornavirus
Hand-foot-mouth disease
Vesicular rash on palms and soles
Ulcers in oral mucosa

CSF findings in meningitis

Question Answer
Bacterialinc. opening pressure
inc. PMNs
Inc. protein (greater than 250)
Dec. glucose
Fungal/TBInc. opening pressure
Inc. lymphocytes
Inc. proteins
Dec. glucose
ViralNormal/inc. opening pressure
Inc. lymphocytes
Normal/inc. protein (less than 150)
Normal glucose
neutrophilsbacterial meningitis
normal opening pressureviral meningitis
normal glucoseviral meningitis
temporal lobe involvementHSV
encephalitismeningitis + mental status cahnges


Question Answer
First 2 months of lifeGBS, E. Coli, Listeria
2 months to 2 yearsS. pneumo, N. meningitidis, H. Flu
Kernig signflexing of the hip 90 degress and subsequent pain w/leg extension
Brudzinski signinvoluntary flexing of knees and hips after passive flexing of the neck. better test.
neonates therapy for meningitisampicillin and cefotaxime or gentamicin
initial empiric therapy (2 months to 18 years)vancomycin plus either cefotaxime or ceftriaxone
mc sequelae of meningitishearing loss

Viral exanthems

Question Answer
difference between measles and rubellain contrast to measles, children with rubella only have a low grade fever and do not appear as ill
prodome is acute onset of high fever with no other symptomsroseola
complications of roseolafebrile seizures
lesions are at different stages of healingvaricella
worsens with fever and sun exposurefifth disease
gray vesicles/ulcersherpangina cause by cocksackie A virus
treatment for measlessupportive, vitamin A (if deficient)
varicella post-exposure prophylaxisif no history of immunity: if immunocompromised give VZIG w/in 10 days, and if immunocompetent give vaccine
impetigo caused bystaph aureus and GAS
treatment for non-bullous impetigotopical antibiotics
treatment for bullous impetigooral antibiotics


Question Answer
most common cause of lymphadenitis lasting for more than three weeksBartonella
if mother has suspected TB at deliveryseparate baby from mother until chest x-ray obtained
if mother has TBtreat infant w/INH and treat mother w/anti TB therapy until culture negative for three months
diagnosis of lyme (aka borrelia burgdorferri)quantitative ELISA and confirmatory Western blot if Elisa is +
treatment of lymedoxcycline if patients greater than 8 and amoxicillin if patient less than 8
skin rash of RMSFextremities first then spreads rapidly
treatment for RMSFdoxycycline or tetracycline in all patients regardless of age
mc opportunistic infection in HIVPCP
in a child greater than 18 months how should screen for HIVIgG ab by ELISA and confirm w/Western blot
in an infant born to HIV-infected motherinfant should be started on AZT. also start PCP prophylaxis (TMP-SMX) at 1 month
in an infant w/symptons of evidence of immune dysfunction born to HIV positive mothertreat w/ ARTs regardless of age or viral load
loeffler syndromepulmonary ascariasis plus hemoptysis
treatment for pin worm (enterobiasis)single oral dose of mebendazole and repeat in 2 weeks


Question Answer
small poxlive
yellow feverlive
influenza spraylive
salk poliokilled
H fluconjugate
n. meningitidisconjugate
live attenuated vaccinesMMR, Sabin, chicken pox, small pox, yellow fever, typhoid, rotavirus, francisecell, influenza spray
killed vaccinesrabies, influenza injection, salk polio (injection), HAV, cholerae, encephalitis
recombinant vaccinesHBV, HPV, Borrelia
Toxoid vaccinestetanus, diphtheria, pertussis
subunit vaccinesH. Flu, N. meningitidis, pneumococcal, typhoid
live vaccineadenovirus