PED 103 Chapter 8

breannurban's version from 2015-09-30 01:39


Question Answer
NutritionThe science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease.
Essential nutrientsSubstances the body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs. These nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water.
MacronutrientAn essential nutrient required by the body in relatively large amounts. These are protein, fat, carbohydrates, and water.
MicronutrientAn essential nutrient required by the body in minute amounts. These are vitamins and minerals.
DigestionThe process of breaking down foods into compounds the gastrointestinal tract can absorb and the body can use.
ProteinAn essential nutrient that forms important parts of the body's main structures (muscles and bones) as well as blood, enzymes, hormones, and cell membranes, also provides energy.
Protein (recommended daily intake)Has 4 calories per gram. Adequate daily intake of protein for adults is 0.8 grams per kilogram. It should make up 10-35% of daily calories.
Amino acidsThe building blocks for protein.
Complete protein sourcesProtein sources that supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts. (Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy.)
Incomplete protein sourcesProtein sources that supply less than all essential amino acids. (Plant sources such as nut and legumes.)
Fats (recommended daily intake)Has 9 calories per gram. It should make up 20-35% of all daily calories.
CholesterolA waxy substance found in the blood cells and needed for synthesis of cell membranes, vitamin D, and hormones.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery walls. (Unhealthy cholesterol)
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)Blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease. (Healthy cholesterol)
Saturated fatsUsually solid at room temperature; they are generally found naturally in animal products. The leading source of these fats is red meat, whole milk, cheese, hot dogs, and lunch meats.
Unsaturated fatsUsually liquid at room temperature; they are generally from plant sources. Healthier than saturated fats!
CarbohydrateAn essential nutrient; sugars, starches, and dietary fiber.
Carbs (recommended daily intake)Has 4 calories per gram. Recommended that adults consume 45-65% of total calories as carbohydrate.
GlucoseA simple sugar that is the body's basic fuel.
GlycogenA starch stored in the liver and muscles.
Glycemic indexA measure of how a particular food affects blood glucose levels. The glycemic index ranks food on a scale of 1 to 100. Foods that quickly raise blood glucose levels receive a higher glycemic index number than foods that raise blood glucose levels more slowly.
Simple carbohydratesSingle sugar molecules and double sugars. They add sweetness to foods and are found naturally in fruits and milk.
Complex carbohydratesStarches and most types of dietary fiber. Starches are found in a variety of plants, especially grains, legumes, and potatoes/yams. Further divided into refined and unrefined carbohydrates.
Refined carbohydratesUsually retain the calories of their unrefined counterparts, but tend to be much lower in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
Unrefined carbohydrates (whole grains)Take longer to chew and digest, enter bloodstream more slowly, and play a role in GI health/weight management.
FiberThe non digestible carbohydrates provided by plants.
Soluable fiberFiber that dissolves in water or is broken down in the large intestine.
Insoluable fiberFiber that doesn't dissolve in water and does not break down.
Recommended fiber intake38 grams for males. 25 grams for females.
VitaminsOrganic/carbon-containing substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body.
AntioxidantSubstance that protects against the breakdown of food or body constituents by free radicals; antioxidants' actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to molecules.
MineralsInorganic/non-carbon containing substances needed in relatively small amounts for the regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions.
Water-soluable vitaminsAbsorbed directly into the bloodstream, where they travel freely. Excess amounts of these vitamins are generally removed by the kidneys and excreted in urine. (C and B vitamins)
Fat-soluable vitaminsUsually carried in the body by special proteins and are stored in the liver and in fat tissues rather than excreted. (A, D, E, K vitamins)
CalciumAssists in the formation of bones and teeth; control of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and blood clotting.
PotassiumAssists with nerve function and body water balance. A major electrolyte in cells and involved in cell membrane transfer.
MagnesiumAssists in transmission of nerve impulses, energy transfer, and activation of many enzymes.
Free radicalElectron-seeking compound that reacts with fats, protein, and DNA. Damages cell membranes and mutates genes. Antioxidants protect our body from these.

Recent badges