PDx II - Final 1

drraythe's version from 2015-08-30 22:36


(ALL TEMPS END IN .5 EXCEPT FOR START OF HORSE & START OF SHEEP. middle two go up 2, outer two go up one)
Question Answer
Adult horse TPR?T=99-101.5 P=28-44 R=8-15 (horse has lowest temp. "Cold blooded" joke here. P used to be 24-44 but now its 28-44, just remember its a little elevated now. & then horses are the approximate intelligence of a 8-15yr old, also 5 & 8 go together, for resp)
Adult cow TPR?T=100.5-102.5 P=40-80 R=12-36 (cow is second coldest...100.5-102.5 bc cows can never be on the number, even tho they try to be nice & start w/ 100...5. Then pulse is 40-80...gonna remember 4 & 8 talking their hearts out about a golden calf together. Last is resp, 12-36, 1 & 2 both check the breathing of a cow & 3 & 6 try to stop it)
Adult Goat TPR?T=101.5-103.5 P=70-110 R=15-40 (goats are higher temp than cow & on the half still. then devilish hearts(goat) are 7 & sweet hearts are 1=70-110 & then five, the little devil, needs room to breathe, away from 4)
Adult sheep TPR?T=102-103.5 P=60-120 R=12-72 (sheep are hottest temp...not very bright, prolly bc brain running hot. start on the even like horses (the extremes start on the evens & only go up 1 bc of their half step). sheep start w/ a heart like six, but they arent evil, so it doubles in size. lastly R is 12-72...2 & 7 are really far apart, so different they even breathe different)

PE of food animals (MOO)

Question Answer
Whats some good history stuff to know?Treatment / Response to treatment, Other animals affected, Diet (especially recent changes), Housing, Bedding, Indoor/outdoor (pasture), Ventilation, Vaccination status, Anthelmintic schedule, Recent additions to herd/flock, Other health problems
How do you check for mastitis if the milk isnt obviously clumpy?CMT → California mastitis test (paddle+reagent)
How can you help prevent a cow from kicking?Tail jack → gently lift tail at the base
Succession?Shaking body wall to detect air/fluid
Ballottement?Palpating/shaking body wall to detect foreign/floating object
What posture might indicate abdomen discomfort?Arched back
Where do you check on the body for how recently a cow ate?L paralumbar fossa
Bilateral VENTRAL distention could be?Preg, Ascites/ peritoneal effusion, uterine hydrops (Hydrops is the result of a malfunction of the uterus or placenta, causing an ↑ production & accumulation of fluid in the amniotic sac (Hydrops amnion) or the allantoic sac (hydrallantois).),
Bilateral DORSAL Distention could be?Ruminal gas
If dorsal distention on the L & ventral distension on the R?Forestomach emptying problem/vagal indigestion
What are the areas to palpate in a BCS?Over the ribs, the "short ribs"(Vertebral body processes over the paralumbar fossa), the "hooks" (tubercoxae), the "pins" (tuber ischii), tail head, withers (point of shoulder at top of scapula)
Where do you wanna start your hands-on exam w/ a cow?At the back, theyre head shy
Where do you check the CRT?Vulva/prepuce
Normal CRT?< 2sec
LNs to check?Prefemoral (subilliac) & prescapular & supermammary LNs
What a normal amount of ruminal contractions & where do you ascult?L paralumbar fossa. 2-3 contractions per 3 min
Why do you do the withers pinch test & what is a good result?You pinch the withers... if they arch away (lordosis), then it is good, bc they arent in too much pain to avoid moving away from your pinch
Explain grunt test?Pinch abdomen, grunt in response means there is pain
Wheres the cows lung field?Counting back from the 13th rib you reach the 11th rib. From here you draw a line roughly from the 11th rib at the level of the tuber coxae diagonally down to the level of the elbow. This marks out the lung field in a cow. (tricipital line, 11th rib, top is epaxial mm, tubercoxae)
Lft side heart valves?Pulmonic, aortic, mitral
Rt side heart valve?Tricuspid
If you cant see the jugular vein, do what?Hold off vein at thoracic inlet & allow vein to distend
What might you think is abnormal, but is normal, when assessing the jugular of a cow?Some distention distal 1/3rd of neck above thoracic inlet & may observe a PULSE (carotid pulse or brief distention of the jugular v. during atrial systole)
If there is jugular distension the full length of the neck, what are you thinking?May reflect ↑ CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE esp. right atrial pressure, or local thrombus from mult IVs
Where is the best/other good places to check hydration of cow?Pinch above upper eyelid. Also pinch skin on neck
What must you do to check sclera? What kinda problem can you check w/ looking at the sclera?Need to tilt head to check. Endotoxemia from G- (red i think)

Rumen Fluid Table

Question Answer
HAY DIET: what is the pH, color, consistency & odor like?pH: 6-7, olive green, viscous, aromatic (least amt of sugar means most basic aka highest numbers. olive green bc hay (not dark green like grass), viscous bc absorbed some water to re-hydrate, aromatic bc hay smells nice)
GRAIN DIET: what is the pH, color, consistency & odor like?pH: 5-6, brown, watery, pungent (lowest pH bc most fatty acids produced from highest sugar. Brown bc grain brown. Watery bc not absorbing much. Pungent bc fermenting stuff & acid)
GRASS DIET: what is the pH, color, consistency & odor like?pH: 5.5-6.5, dark green, watery, like grass (middle range pH bc middle range amt of sugars.)
What is the acetate, propionate & butyrate like in a high fiber vs a high starch diet?High fiber diet: 70% acetate, 20%proprionate, 10% butyrate. High starch diet: 60%acetate, 30%proprionate, 10% butyrate (THE PROPRIONATE IS WHAT CHANGES, WHICH IS WHAT FARMERS WANT)
How much of VFA is used for cow energy?70%
Which VFA is gluconeogenic?Propionate
Which VFA(s) stim rumen papillary growth?Propionate & butyrate
Grey rumen fluid means?DEAD THINGS ARE GREY! Means very acidic rumen is killing off flora (<5pH)
What is the pH of an abnormal, acidic rumen? Color? Consistency? Odor?pH <5, grey (dead crap), watery, acidic smell
What is the rumen pH of an anorexic animal? Smell?pH 7-8 (no food to break into VFAs), odor is PUTRID
What is the pH of cow saliva?>8
What VFAs are produced during grain overload, what kind of affects does an overproduction of VFAs do? What other affects will there be from the low pH?LACTATE is produced, which has an osmotic effect. The low pH will also lead to the emergence of other microbes & rumen wall damage
At what pH does adaptable population, protozoan, fungi, selanmonus bact & other motile bact live at?Looks like 6.5-7 (nothing at 6-6.5 so prolly could be in there too?)
At what pH does selamonus ruminatium & megasphera elsdenii live at?5-6pH
At what pH does strep bovid live at?pH 6-5
What pH does lactobacillus live at?pH ~4.5
What pH has there be massive death?4.5 & under
Normal rumen pH?5-7
DEATH pH?>4.5, mostly 4
What happens at pH 5?G(-) & protozoa die, Strep bovis prolif → Produce lactic acid
What happens at pH 4.5?Strep bovis die, Lactobacillus prolif → ↑ Lactic acid
What happens at pH 4?EVERYTHING IS DEAD

Food Animal GI lab

Question Answer
What is quidding?Unthriftyness, due to dropping food out of the mouth (stomatitis, paralyzed tongue or other cause)
If you see ptyalism (drooling) & you wanna do oral exam, what do 1st?WEAR GLOVES
What are some things ptyalism is associated w/?Choke (esophageal obstruction), Stomatitis, Foreign body penetration of the oral cavity or pharynx, Ruminal disorders, Rabies, Various toxicities
What might you see w/ a tooth root abscess?Swelling along mandible or maxilla
If there is a wire/FB in the oropharynx, what might you see?Submandibular/Retropharyngeal swelling
Animal prehens food & swallow → which CNs?Swallowing reflex = Trigeminal = 5
mm of mastication = Facial = 7
Tongue = Hypoglossal = 12
Free gas bloat is what kinda bloat?Not a 1° dz, but rather a symptom of another dz process
Frothy bloat is what kinda bloat?Commonly associated w/ certain plants, such as alfalfa (1° bloat)
What is the major prob w/ bloat that makes it an emergency?Pressure is put on the diaphragm, leading to dyspnea → Suffocation → DEATH
1st CS of bloat?Abdominal distension (Lft paralumbar will protrude)
Will bloat stay more in the ventral or dorsal abdomen?Can go dorsally! Since its gas doesnt have to sink down
What posture might a cow take w/ bloat?Stand w/ head & neck distended → Cant breathe!
How does bloat affect HR & breathing?Tachypnea (eventually dyspnea) & tachycardia
What do cows w/ bloat die from & how fast?30min - 4hr from asphyxia (diaphragm & lungs become compressed, leading to an interference w/ respiration & venous return to the heart
Common causes of free gas bloat? How can you relieve free gas bloat?Esophageal obstruction, pneumonia, hypocalcemia, tetanus. Pass stomach tube
Frothy 1° or 2°?
How do you Tx ‘frothy bloat’?Anti-foaming agent (ex: Poloxalene (Therabloat®). Poloxalene will reduce the surface tension of the bubbles, which will cause them to break down, thus turning a frothy bloat into a free gas bloat
2 ways to collect rumen fluid?Via stomach tube or by rumenocentesis
Problems w/ collecting rumen fluid via stomach tube? How might you fix this?Saliva contamination of the rumen sample may affect the measured pH. How can we prevent that? You can cut off the "finger" from a rubber glove & place it over the end of the stomach tube. Once the tube is in the rumen, blow on the end of the tube. The fingertip will fall off & you can collect saliva-free fluid. Dont worry, that little glove tip wont hurt the cow
Name of speculum used to pass stomach tube?Frick’s
If youre gonna size a stomach tube for a cow, how do you measure?Measure tube from nose to thoracic inlet
Why cant you use smell to determine the tube is in the rumen?Necrotic tissue can smell similar to rumen. Therefore, cattle w/ pneumonia or necrotic laryngitis can mislead you to think the tube is in the rumen when in fact, it is in the trachea
You should analyze rumen fluid immediately bc what factors affect it?Minimize the effects of cooling & air exposure on protozoal activity → will cause a massive die off
Black-green color of rumen fluid indicates?Rumen stasis
Milky gray-brown color of rumen fluid indicates?Lactic acidosis from grain overload
Lactic acidosis smells like what?Acidic or sour smell
What the normal viscosity of rumen fluid?Slightly viscous
Grass fed ruminants pH?6.0-7.0
Cattle on high grain diets pH?5.0-6.0
Grain overload pH?<5
Cattle w/ complete anorexia pH?7-8
Whats the pH that would tell you the rumen fluid sample was contaminated w/ saliva?>8
Methylene blue reduction does what? Normal rxn is?Measures the reducing ability of anaerobic ruminal bacteria → if the NMB is decolorized, the flora are working bc they broke it down
Normal amt of protozoa per low powered field? What other normal characteristics?>40 protozoa per low-power field, good movement, variety of sizes, will die quick out of rumen so need to analyze soon
Why would you check Cl- levels?Normal: <30 mEq/L. Useful in localizing sites of obstruction. If the abomasum is impacted, the hydrochloric acid will re-flux back into the rumen. This will result in a higher than normal rumen chloride level. Sheep w/ abomasal emptying defect will clinical have rumen chloride levels >100 mEq/L

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