PDx 1 - Ophthalmology Handout

drraythe's version from 2015-06-14 21:59


Question Answer
Clinical signs of ocular disease?Lack of tear production/dry eye, high intraocular pressure, aqueous flare, pawing at eye, discharge, color changes, pain, opacity, pupillary changes, dec vision/blindness, enlargement of eye, blepharospasm, anisocoria
Minimum ophthalmic database? (6)Schirmer tear test, fluorescein stain, & intraocular pressure measurement, palpebral reflex, pupillary light reflex (direct & consensual), menace response
How do you eval nictitating membrane?Retropulse both globes, it should come out from medial canthus area to cover eye
What is entropion?Eyelid folds inward
What is ectropion?Eyelid folds outwards
What is conjunctivitis?Inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye & the inner surface of the eyelids).
Discuss lacrimationProduction of aqueous humor (made by ciliary processes) & the draining through the ciliary cleft
How do you test for tear production?Schirmer tear test strips
How do you place a tear test? How long do you leave a schirmer tear test strip in? What is normal?Pull out lower lid, place paper up to notch touching lid, allow lid to return to position. Keep there for 60 seconds, take out, read IMMEDIATELY. Normal is >=15mm
How would you detect a corneal ulcer or injury?Fluorescein stain, which adheres to the stroma of the cornea but washes off the surface of the cornea, which is then illuminated by a blue light
How do you perform a fluorescein test?Place strip on eye, allow dye to spread. Rinse eye. Use blue light to shine in eye, the stroma, if exposed from injury, will have dye bound to it & will appear green in the blue light
What’s up w/ a fluorescein drain test? (How to perform/ what it tests)Use fluorescein dye & inject into nasolacrimal duct. See if it comes out the nose. It can indicate a rupture or a blockage of the duct to cause epiphora or fluid accumulation
Discuss/describe examination of the retinaUse ophthalmoscope, look at fundus of eye. Look at retinal pigment layer, the retinal vasculature
Difference between a direct & indirect ophthalmoscope/exam?Direct is held close to the animal & close to your face, you directly look into the eye through the magnifying & illuminating piece. Indirect is there the illuminating piece you look through is held away from the animal, & a lens is put close to their eye & you look from a distance **IMAGE WILL BE UPSIDE DOWN
Which is a more magnified exam - direct or indirect?Direct is more magnified
What does the indirect view provide, even though direct is more common?A wider view of the eye