PDx 1 - Dermatology Handout

drraythe's version from 2015-06-14 21:25

1⁰ Lesions

Question Answer
MaculeNon-raised, circumscribed, area of discoloration that is up to 1 cm in diameter
Patch Similar to macule, but larger than 1 cm
PapuleSolid erythematous (red) elevation in the skin up to 1 cm in diameter
PlaqueFlat-topped elevation in the skin, larger than a papule
NoduleSmall, circumscribed elevation >1cm in diameter that extends into dermis or below
TumorMass of varying size that can involve any layer of the skin &/or subcutaneous tissue
PustuleSmall, circumscribed elevation w/in epidermis filled w/ purulent exudate; often preceded by a papule
AbscessAccumulation of purulent exudate w/in dermis or subcutaneous tissue; lesion often fluctuant, but can be firm
VesicleElevation of the epidermis filled w/ clear fluid that is up to 1 cm in diameter
BullaVesicle larger than 1 cm in diameter
CystCavity filled w/ either fluid or semi-solid material, lined by epithelium
WhealCircumscribed, edematous raised lesion

2⁰ Lesions

Question Answer
Epidermal collaretteCircular ridge of scale that represents the remnants of a pustule, papule, vesicle or bulla that has regressed
ScarArea of fibrous tissue at site of previous trauma or lesion; often alopecic & depigmented
ErosionSuperficial lesion w/in epidermis that does not penetrate into the dermis
UlcerDeep lesion through epidermis extending into dermis
FissureLinear lesion (crack) into or through epidermis
ExcoriationSelf-inflicted lesion (scratching, biting, rubbing) causing removal of epidermis
LichenificationThickening & hardening of the skin causing exaggerated skin markings; associated w/ chronic inflammation or trauma
HyperkeratosisThickened horny layer of epidermis; ie. callus

Lesions that can be 1⁰ or 2⁰

Question Answer
ScaleAccumulation of cornified cells; can vary in consistency, color & size
CrustComposed of dried exudate, blood, serum, scales
AlopeciaHair loss
ComedoDilated hair follicle filled w/ cells & sebaceous secretions
HyperpigmentationDue to increased melanin w/in epidermis +/- dermis
HypopigmentationLoss of epidermal melanin

Rest of the check list

Question Answer
Describe skin scraping in dog**Dull scalpel blade first! Deep will draw capillary bleeding, superficial wont.
Demodex vs sarcoptes? (Shape, which is contagious, cause what? which is deeper? how to get the scraping?)Demo is cigar shaped, sarcoptes is round. sarcop is contagious, demo isnt. Both cause mange. Demodex is deeper in skin. Must squeeze then scrape for mange diag.
Yeast vs bacteria?Yeast bigger, often budding
How do you perform an otoscope exam?Lift pinna up, insert scope vertically, then slowly lower to see horizontally
Appropriate ear cleaning technique?Soak cotton ball in cleaner, squeeze out into ear while squishing/rubbing ear, never let go of cotton ball
Proper ear sampling technique bact/yeastDry applicator **Do not stick in cotton tip applicator too far! Rolled in ear then smeared & rolled onto microscope slide, heat fix, stained w/ diff quick
Proper ear sampling technique parasitesOil-soaked applicator, same technique to get sample, put sample on drop of oil on microscope slide

Recent badges