PDx 1 - Cardiopulm Handout

drraythe's version from 2015-06-14 20:44


Question Answer
How do you determine respiratory rate?From afar before you handle them, ideally
What is normal resp rate in dog? Cat?Dog = 15-30BPM; Cat = 20-30BPM
How do you determine heart rate?Take pulse (femoral or dorsal pedal a) while auscultating heart
Heart rate of dog/cat? (Physical exam lecture)70-160 bpm in dogs, 120-240 bpm in cats
Resting HR of dog? Cat?Dog = 50-90; Cat = 90-120 (resting back to back, 5-9-12)
Stressed/exam HR for dog? Cat?Dog = 80-160; Cat = 140-220 (when stressed I 8 16 plates of food before I think 14+14 is 22)
Where do you take a pulse in a dog or cat?Femoral, dorsal pedal aa.
What is a pulse deficit?When there are fewer pulses than heart beats (might happen w/ premature beats or atrial fibrillation)
What is an apex beat, how do you ID it?Caused by impact vibration as heart hits chest wall at beginning of ventricular contraction. Left, ventral, 5th intercostal space
How do you percuss the thorax?Used to assess density of structures beneath by “thumping” on thorax, can be hyper-resonant (air filled) or dull sounding (dense)
What do you palpate the trachea for?Symmetry, Inducible cough, Masses.
Parts of stethoscope and what they are used for?Ear pieces: point forward. Double tubing or single tubing. Bell for low-pitched sounds (3rd, 4th heart sounds, diastolic murmurs (uncommon)), diaphragm for high-pitched/most heart sounds and murmurs
How do you ascult the lungs/trachea?Use a systematic method: do trachea → cranioventral field (between forelimb and chest wall) → central field → dorsal field
What are the lung fields?Cranioventral, Central, Dorsal
Where are the lung borders?Cranial-Thoracic inlet. Caudal– 7th intercostal space ventrally & 9th intercostal space dorsally
Where do you ascult the heart/ all its valves? (ICSs and where on the rib?)PAM-T (2, 4, 5 +3 ICS's) ← according to her (P = above sternum, A = above CCJ, M = at CCJ, T = near CCJ)
What is S1?“Lub” - Closure of AV valves (mitral and tricuspid), Onset of systole
What is S2?“Dub” - Closure of pulmonic and aortic valves after ventricular ejection. End of systole
What is S3? Is it heard in sm animals? Heard when what happens, and where?End of ventricular filling. Not usually heard in sm. ani. Usually heard with ventricular dilation with myocardial failure. Heard over cardiac apex
What is S4? Is it heard in sm animals? Heard when what happens?Blood flow into ventricles during atrial contraction. Not usually. Increased ventricular stiffness or hypertrophy. Usually heard with HCM or hyperthyroidism in cats
What would you look for in nasal cavity disease?Nasal discharge
What are the different types of nasal discharge? (3)Serous, Mucoid, Mucopurulent
Important things to note about nasal discharge? (4)Uni/bi-lateral? Quality (serous, mucopurulent?)? Is there hemorrhage/epistaxis? Food particles?
Crackles aka? Where do these sounds come from? What do they mean?"Rales" discontinuous sounds. From smaller airways (<2mm). It means Edema or exudate within airways (i.e. pulmonary edema, pneumonia)
Possible causes of decreased or absent bronchovesicular sounds?Something stopping the transmission of sounds (air, fluid, masses, abdominal structures) i.e. Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, diaphragmatic hernia, masses
What is a murmur?A heart sound of a longer duration during a normally silent part of cardiac cycle
How are murmurs related to viscosity of blood?Inversely related to blood viscosity (decrease viscosity, increase turbulence)
How are murmurs related to velocity of blood?Directly related to velocity (increase velocity, increase turbulence)
What should you know about an "innocent puppy murmur"?Disappear by 6 months of age
What would be causes of physiologic murmurs?Anemia, fever, hyperthyroidism
What should you describe in a murmur?(1) Timing
(2) Intensity- Scale I-VI
(3) Localization – point of maximal intensity (Need to know your valve locations/anatomy- Apex (approx. 5th ICS) vs. base (approx. 2nd ICS) )
(4) Which hemithorax
(5) Phenographic shape
What does "pan" in regards to a murmur mean?Obliterates both heart sounds (can be through systole or diastole) (PAN KITTY OBLITERATES ALL)
What does "holo" in regards to a murmur mean?Lasts throughout systole or diastole, does not obliterate heart sounds
Grade 1 murmurVery soft murmur; heard only in quiet surroundings after intently listening
Grade 2 murmurSoft murmur, but easily heard
Grade 3 murmurModerate- intensity murmur
Grade 4 murmurLoud murmur; but not accompanied by precordial thrill
Grade 5 murmurLoud murmur with a precordial thrill
Grade 6 murmurVery loud murmur that can be heard with stethoscope off the chest wall; accompanied by a precordial thrill