(ANIMALS LISTED LOWEST TO HIGHEST TEMP-->HORSE,COW,GOAT, SHEEP)
(ALL TEMPS END IN .5 EXCEPT FOR START OF HORSE AND START OF SHEEP. middle two go up 2, outer two go up one)
adult horse TPR?
T=99-101.5 P=28-44 R=8-15 (horse has lowest temp. "cold blooded" joke here. P used to be 24-44 but now it's 28-44, just remember it's a little elevated now. and then horses are the approximate intellegance of a 8-15yr old, also 5 and 8 go together, for resp)
adult cow TPR?
T=100.5-102.5 P=40-80 R=12-36 (cow is second coldest...100.5-102.5 bc cows can never be on the number, even tho they try to be nice and start with 100...5. Then pulse is 40-80...gonna remmember 4 and 8 talking their hearts out about a golden calf together. last is resp, 12-36, 1 and 2 both check the breathing of a cow, and 3 and 6 try to stop it)
adult goat TPR?
T=101.5-103.5 P=70-110 R=15-40 (goats are higher temp than cow, and on the half still. then devilish hearts(goat) are 7, and sweet hearts are 1=70-110, and then five, the little devil, needs room to breathe, away from 4)
adult sheep TPR?
T=102-103.5 P=60-120 R=12-72 (sheep are hottest temp...not very bright, prolly bc brain running hot. start on the even like horses (the extremes start on the evens, and only go up 1 bc of their half step). sheep start with a heart like six, but they arent evil, so it doubles in size. lastly R is 12-72...2 and 7 are really far apart, so different they even breathe different)
Treatment / Response to treatment, Other animals affected, Diet (especially recent changes), Housing, Bedding, Indoor/outdoor (pasture), Ventilation, Vaccination status, Anthelmintic schedule, Recent additions to herd/flock, Other health problems
how do you check for mastitis if the milk isnt obviously clumpy?
CMT--> california mastitis test (paddle+reagent)
how can you help prevent a cow from kicking?
tail jack--> gently lift tail at the base
Shaking body wall to detect air/fluid
Palpating/shaking body wall to detect foreign/floating object
what postur might indicate abdomen discomfort?
where do you check on the body for how recently a cow ate?
L paralumbar fossa
bilateral VENTRAL distention could be...
preg, Ascites/ peritoneal effusion, uterine hydrops(Hydrops is the result of a malfunction of the uterus or placenta, causing an increased production and accumulation of fluid in the amnionic sac (Hydrops amnion) or the allantoic sac (hydrallantois).),
Bilateral DORSAL Distention could be...
if dorsal distention on the L and ventral distension on the R?
forestomach emptying problem/vagal indigestion
what are the areas to palpate in a BCS?
over the ribs, the "short ribs"(Vertebral body processes over the paralumbar fossa), the "hooks" (tubercoxae), the "pins" (tuber ischii), tail head, withers (point of shoulder at top of scapula)
where do you wanna start your hands-on exam with a cow?
at the back, theyre head shy
where do you check the CRT?
LNs to check?
prefemoral (subilliac), and prescapular, and supermammary LNs
what's a normal amount of ruminal contractions, and where do you ascult?
L paralumbar fossa. 2-3 contractions per 3 min
why do you do the withers pinch test, and what is a good result?
you pinch the withers... if they arch away (lordosis), then it is good, because they aren't in pain to avoid moving away from your pinch
explain grunt test
pinch abdomen, grunt in response means there's pain
where's the cows lung field?
Counting back from the 13th rib you reach the 11th rib. From here you draw a line roughly from the 11th rib at the level of the tuber coxae diagonally down to the level of the elbow. This marks out the lung field in a cow. (tricipital line, 11th rib, top is epaxial mm, tubercoxae)
L side heart valves?
pulmonic, aortic, mitral
R side heart valve?
if you cant see the jugular vein, do what?
Hold off vein at thoracic inlet and allow vein to distend
what might you think is abnormal, but is normal, when assessing the jugular of a cow?
Some distention distal 1/3rd of neck above thoracic inlet, and May observe a PULSE (carotid pulse or brief distention of the jugular v. during atrial systole)
if there is jugular distension the full length of the neck, what are you thinking?
may reflect increased CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE esp. right atrial pressure, or local thrombus from mult IVs
where is the best/other good places to check hydration of cow?
pinch above upper eyelid. Also pinch skin on neck
What must you do to check sclera? what kinda problem can you check with looking at the sclera?
need to tilt head to check. endotoxemia from from G- (red i think?)
HAY DIET: what is the pH, color, consistancy, and odor like?
pH: 6-7, olive green, viscous, aromatic (least amt of sugar means most basic aka highest numbers. olive green bc hay (not dark green like grass), viscous bc absorbed some water to rehydrate, aromatic bc hay smells nice)
GRAIN DIET: what is the pH, color, consistancy, and odor like?
pH: 5-6, brown, watery, pungent (lowest pH bc most fatty acids produced from highest sugar. Brown bc grain brown. Watery bc not absorbing much. pungent bc fermenting stuff and acid)
GRASS DIET: what is the pH, color, consistancy, and odor like?
pH: 5.5-6.5, dark green, watery, like grass (middle range pH bc middle range amt of sugars.)
what is the acetate, proprionate, and butyrate like in a high fiber vs a high starch diet?
high fiber diet: 70% acetate, 20%proprionate, 10% butyrate. high starch diet: 60%acetate, 30%proprionate, 10% butyrate (SO: THE PROPRIONATE IS WHAT CHANGES, WHICH IS WHAT FARMERS WANT...i think)
how much of VFA is used for cow energy?
which VFA is gluconeogenic?
which VFA(s) stim rumen papillary growth?
proprionate and butyrate
Grey rumen fluid means?
DEAD THINGS ARE GREY! Means very acidic rumen is killing off flora (<5pH)
what is the pH of an abnormal, acidic rumen? color? consistancy? odor?
pH <5, grey (dead crap), watery, acidic smell
what is the rumen pH of an anorexic animal? smell?
pH 7-8 (no food to break into VFAs), odor is PUTRID
what is the pH of cow saliva?
what VFAs are produced during grain overload, what kind of affects does an overproduction of VFAs do? what other affects will there be from the low pH?
LACTATE is produced, which has an osmotic effect. The low pH will also lead to the emergence of other microbes and rumen wall damage
at what pH does adaptable population, protozoan, fungi, selenmonus bact and other motile bact live at?
looks like 6.5-7 (nothing at 6-6.5 so prolly could be in there too?)
at what pH does selamonus ruminatium and megasphera elsdenii live at?
at what pH does strep bovis live at?
between pH 6-5
what pH does lactobacillus live at?
right around 4.5pH
what pH has there be massive death?
4.5 and under
normal rumen ph?
less than 4.5, mostly 4
what happens at ph5?
G- and protozoa die, strep bovis prolif--> produce lactic acid
what happens at pH 4.5?
strep bovis die, lactobacillus prolif--> more lactic acid
anti foaming agent(for example: Poloxalene (Therabloat®). Poloxalene will reduce the surface tension of the bubbles, which will cause the bubbles to break down, thus turning a frothy bloat into a free gas bloat
two ways to collect rumen fluid?
via stomach tube or by rumenocentesis
problems with collecting rumen fluid via stomach tube? how might you fix this?
saliva contamination of the rumen sample may affect the measured pH. How can we prevent that? You can cut off the "finger" from a rubber glove and place it over the end of the stomach tube. Once the tube is in the rumen, blow on the end of the tube. The finger tip will fall off and you can collect saliva-free fluid. Don't worry, that little glove tip won't hurt the cow
name of speculum used to pass stomach tube?
if youre gonna size a stomach tube for a cow, how do you measure?
measure tube from nose to thoracic inlet
why cant you use smell to determine the tube is in the rumen?
Necrotic tissue can smell similar to rumen. Therefore, cattle with pneumonia or necrotic laryngitis can mislead you to think the tube is in the rumen when in fact, it is in the trachea
you should analyze rumen fluid immediately because what factors affect it?
minimize the effects of cooling and air exposure on protozoal activity--> will cause a massive die off
Black-green color of rumen fluid indicates?
Milky gray-brown color of rumen fluid indicates?
lactic acidosis from grain overload
lactic acidosis smells like what?
acidic or sour smell
what the normal viscosity of rumen fluid?
Grass fed ruminants pH?
Cattle on high grain diets pH?
grain overload pH?
cattle with complete anorexia pH?
whats the pH that would tell you the rumen fluid sample was contaminated with saliva?
Methylene blue reduction does what? normal rxn is?
Measures the reducing ability of anaerobic ruminal bacteria--> and NMB, if the NMB is decolorized, the flora are working bc they broke it down
normal amt of protozoa per low powered field? what other normal characteristics?
>40 protozoa per low-power field, good movement, variety of sizes, will die quick outof rumen so need to analyze soon
why would you check Cl- levels?
Normal: <30 mEq/L. Useful in localizing sites of obstruction. If the abomasum is impacted, the hydrochloric acid will reflux back into the rumen. This will result in a higher than normal rumen chloride level. Sheep with abomasal emptying defect will clinical have rumen chloride levels >100 mEq/L
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