PBS 1 - Temperament and Attachment

psychnerd's version from 2016-05-25 16:50

Section 1

Question Answer
Chess and ThomasNew York Longitudinal Study - temperament types relevant to goodness-of-fit - Easy, Difficult and Slow-to-warm-up
Buss and PlominBehavioural genetics perspective - early emerging, genetic origins, heritable and highly stable - negative emotionality, activity and sociability
RothbartReactivity and self-regulation - surgency/extraversion, negative affectivity, effortful/control orienting
Putnam, Sanson and Rothbart (2002)Parental report questionairres - bias of both reports of their parenting and their child's temperament. Generally filled out by mothers and not fathers.
Rubin (1998)Culture may influence a child's temperament - affects the interpretation of the acceptability of individual characteristcis and the ranges of interactions/relationships that are permissable. Different cultures will place different values on different temperament characterisitics,
Kerr (2001)temperamental shyness varies in acceptability from culture to culture.
Frick and Morris (2004)Certain temperament vulnerabilities may influence the onset of severe conduct problems. May explain subtypes of anti-social youths.
Sakkalou et al. (2015)Temperament may influence emergence of types of imitation. Infants who are more surgent will begin to imitate adults earlier.
Hardway et al. / Mesman et al.Temperament associated with later well-being and resillience. Those with higher sensitivity/reactivity more fearful, inhibited and social anxious. Increased externalization of problems - cascade effect.
Boom (1994)Temperament may determine caregivers reaction to child and therefore influence parent/child interactions, indirectly influencing attachment through goodness of fit.

Section 2

Question Answer
Doward and MillerAttachments driven by food
Harlow and ZimmermanMonkeys with wire/cloth mother - attachment associated with sensitivity and comfort.
BowlbyEthological attachment theory, attachment behavioural systems and timeline of attachment
Ainsworth (1969)Individual differences in attachment. Attachment figure is a secure base from which to explore the world. Sensitivity hypothesis - will effect extent to which parent is seen as a secure base.
Ainsworth et al. (1978)Strange situation - Secure, resistant and avoidant
Main and Solomon (1986)4th attachment type - Disorganized
Ijzerndoorn et al. (1988)Cultural variations in attachment types.
Grossmann and Grossmann German infants more likely to be insecurely attached.
Takahashi Japanese infants showed same levels of secure attachment, but no avoidant and high resistant.
Rothbaum et al. West value individuality and expressing emotions, East not encouraged to show emotions. Behaviours in the strange situation do not necessarily mean insecurely attached.
Bowlby's juvenile theives44 theives, 17 had experienced frequent maternal separation, 32% of whom were diagnosed with affectionless psychopathy.
Geniediscovered at 13, never attached, managed to learn language but never developed intellectual skills.
Czech TwinsGained intelligence and later formed attachments when adopted. Were they attached to each other?
Rutter et al.Romanian Orphans - those adopted later, more severe attachment disruption. By age 11, 50% of those showing attachment issue at age 6 still showed issues.
Hodges and Tizard65 British children from early life to adolescence. Institutionalised since 4 months. Not formed attachments. Not matter whether they were adopted or no, had problems with peers and relationships.
HoferPsychobiology perspective - what factors influence parental sensitivity?
Lamb et al. (2010)Sensitivity hypothesis also relevant for fathers, and attachment occurs along the same pathway as it does with mothers.
Van Ijzerndoorn and Juffer (2006)Biological relatedness does not effect how attachments form. Adopted children follow same timeline/pattern - however, time is important (Rutter et al.)
Teti et al. (1995)Maternal well-being leads to lower parental sensitivity
Vaughn et al.Temperament - physiological variations in the child may influence the interactions and therefore the attachment.
Mangelsdoorf (2000)Temperament can affect clarity of cues, stimuli preferences, responsivity to cues and arousal and regulation.

Section 3