PBS 1 - Personality

psychnerd's version from 2016-05-20 10:40


Question Answer
FreudPersonality centred around motives - self-preservation and sexual libido, and aggressive motives - unconcious and shaped by childhood experiences.
Henry MurrayQuantify unconcious motives - system of psychogenic needs - Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Gordon AllportBasis of the traits approach - lexical approach - 18,000 words from the dictionary
Raymond CattellFactor analysis to correlate traits - comprehensive system of personality trait dimensions
McCrae and Costa Five Factor Model - OCEAN - universal, consistent and biologically based.
Ashton and LeeA 6th category?
DeRaad (2010)Less factors? Only 3 of 5 traits replicable across cultures - extraversion, agreeableness and concientiousness.
DeRaad and Peabody (2005)Wide support for the 'big 3' in Europe rather than the 'big 5'.
Srivastava et al. (2003)Plaster hypothesis - Personality is biologically based and matures into early adulthood where it becomes stable and 'set like plaster'
Sato et al. All big 5 traits show changes as we get older. Concientiousness and agreeableness decreases from childhood to adolescence and increase in adulthood.
McCrae (2002)30 year olds more stable across time than children/adolescents. Adults aged 50-70 show the most stability.
Terracciano et al.Mean level changes after the age of 30, but are gradual.
Baumeister and TiceIndividual differences in the stability of personality, some people develop more stable personalities than others.
Plomin Monozygotic twins have higher correlations in personality traits than dizygotic twins.
McCraeBig 5 are found worldwide
Funder (2013)Genes control the development of the brain which may be implemented in personality. Anterior cinguate is associated with neuroticism. Middle frontal gyrus with concientiousness.
Tang et al. (2013)Neurotransmitters (serotonin) - increasing serotonin with prozac lead to an increase in extraversion.
FunderAlleles involved with certain personality traits - short version of 5 HTT are associated with neuroticism.
Bleindorn et al. (2013)Social investment theory - people become more agreeable and concientious, and less neurotic with the onset of adult responsibilities.
McCrae (1998)Cultural influence - Acculturation of Chinese students - living in Canada increased openness and agreeableness. Recent immigrants showed similar personality profiles to people in Hong Kong, whilst those born in Canada resembled the Canadian students more closely.
Roberts, Caspi and Mofitt Work experience associated with personality changes in young adults
Costa et al.Women in a divorce - decreased dominance and increased extraversion
PlominChildhood personality a consequence of our genes, adult personality develops independantly?
FunderGenes influence our behaviour, causing us to seek out certain environments
Buss Person-environment fit - selection, evocation and manipulation
Ozer, Benet-Martinez (2006)Meta-analysis - personality predicts outcomes in happiness, psychological and physical health, spirituality, identity, relationship quality, occupational choice and criminal activity.
MehlElectronically activated recorder - 30 second clips of ambient environment - rich data for the behavioural manifestations of personality.