Parents playing with 20-24 month olds at home - encouraging masculine/feminine behaviour - Teachers and Peers too
Seavey, Katz and Zalk
Baby X Studies
Paterski et al. (2005)
Girls with CAH play with male-typical toys despite the fact parents encourage sex-typical behaviour. Parents of girls with CAH gave more sex-typical encouragement than parents of unaffected controls
Wong et al. (2013)
137 CAH, 107 controls - parental encouragement was correlated with female-typical play, however, parents encouraged less female typical play in girls with CAH and more male-typical play
Perry and Bussy (1979)
Observing same-sex models
Masters et al. (1979)
Neutral toys labelled 'for boys' or 'for girls' and combined with modelling.
Gender Schema Theory
Children will organize the infomation they recieve on gender from their environment into gender schemas.
Cordua et al. (1979)
Male doctors/ female nurses remembered correctly, female doctors/male nurses made more mistakes as counter-schematic information.
Levy and Carter (1979)
Children can be either strongly or weakly schematized which will affect the amount of schematic information they will remember.
Slaby and Frey (1975)
Interview to measure gender construction - identity, stability and consistency
Erhdhart and Baker (1974)
Girls with CAH identify as male - parents referred to them as 'tom boys' and they reported less contentment with their gender, saying they would change if they were given the choice.
Parents enforce masculine behaviours leading to development of masculine gender identity
Dessen et al. (2005)
Meta-analysis - majority of girls with CAH are raised female and come to identify with female gender. However, 13/250 reported gender problems, 30% of whom was extreme gender dysphoria. Those desiring sex change was higher than the baseline rate of transexuality in the general population.
Javda et al (2010)
12, 18 and 24 months - girls and boys differed in the times they spent looking at toys. Preferences established before gender consistency.
Leinbach and Fagot (1986)
Gender identity did not relate to sex-typed play behaviour, but did relate to same-sex playmate selection and negatively to aggression.
Bussy and Bandura
Self-evaluative processes - only older children reported feeling that way themselves and had to come evaluate their own experiences.
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