Patophysiology - diseases

fupecera's version from 2017-02-03 22:52


Question Answer
<3 markers of plaque vulnerabilityinflammation in the plaque, large lipid core within thin cap, endothelial erosion, with superficial PT adherence, fissured or raptured cup, severe stenosis predisposing to shear stress
stable angina relieved byrest and nitroglicerin
prinzmetal angina treatmentcalcium chanel blockers (vasodilation)
how long is MI pain>15 min
MI ECG findingslarge Q wave, inverted T wave, ST elevation
cell death MI markersmyoglobin, LDH, Troponin, CK-MB
long after MITn
Failure of valve to openstenosis
Failure of valve to closeregurgitation
aortic stenosis predominant causecalcification
restrictive cardiomyopathy most common causeamyloidosis 50%
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy most common casuemutation in sarcomere
dilated cardiomyopathy most common causepostviral myocarditis
cardiac tamponadecompression of chambers with impaired filling
cardiac tamponade typical findingBeck's triad - hypotension, distended neck veins, muffed heart sounds
pericarditis findingspain radiating to back dysphagia, friction rub
acute pericarditis etiology80% idiopathic but mostly viral
normal sinus rythm60-100 beats/min
escape rythmtakeover by by slower pacemakers
types of escape rythmjunctional 40-60 beats/min, ventricular 15-40 beats/min
atrial flutter240-350 beats/min
AV blockdisturbance in conduction between sinus impulse and ventricular response
1st degree blockprolonged PR interval, no treatment required
2nd degree blockloosing of P waves
3rd degree blockno impulses conducted, P waves totally independent of ventricular rythm
Wolff Parkinson White syndromebypass of AV node characteristic delta wave
capilaries structuresingle layer of endothelium and basement membrane
lymph vessels structurethey resemble veins - thin walls and valves
smooth muscle receptor in vesselsα1 binding to SNS → NE → contraction
acute arterial obstruction6 Ps - pallor, parestesia paralysis, pain pulselesness, paralysis
venous obstruction result inedema
arterial obstruction result inischemia
lymph flow obstruction causesurgical removal / radiation
which structure is in charge of creating vascular resistancearterioles
hypertensive crisis180/120 no organ damage
hypertensive emergency180/120 organ damage present
distributive shock distinguising featurehypotension warm skin, low urine output
vasodilatorsprostaglandins, histamine, NO


Acute respiratory failuredisturbed gas exchange resulting in hypoxemia and hypercapnia
Pulmonary hypertensionincrease of blood pressure in the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries, together known as the lung vasculature. Primary - idiopathic, secondary due to COPD
Pulmonary venous tromboembolismundissolved detached material that occludes blood vessels of pulmonary vasculature
Pulmonary malignancieslarge cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma
Obstructive Pulmonary diseases (asthma, bronchitis)increased resistance to air flow - decreased FEV/FVC ratio (forced expiratory volume)/(forced vital capacity)
Acute bronchitisairways become inflamed and narrowed from capillary dilation
Chronic bronchitistype of obstructive lung disease characterized by long term poor airflow and cough present more than 3 months
Emphysemaobstruction related to loss of lung parenchyma, destructive changes in alveolar wall and enlargement of distal air sacs
Bronchiectasispermanent dilation of bronchi, obstructive and supurative disorder
Bronchiolitiswidespread inflammation of bronchi attributable to infuenza virus or some bacteria
Cystic fibrosisobstructive disorder or suppurative hypersecretion of abnormal thick mucous that obstructs exocrine glands
Acute tracheobronchial obstructioncauses include aspiration of foreign body
Epiglottitisrapidly progressive cellulitis of epiglottis and adjacent soft tissue
Croup syndromeinfectious agent causes inflammation along the entire airway leading to edema
Diffuse interstitial lung diseaseaka interstitial pneumonia - thickening of alveolar interstitium
Sarcoidosisacute or chronic systemic disease; common feature is presence of CD4 T cells
Hypersensitivity pneumonititisextrinsic allergic alvolitis; numerous inhaled organic agents are responsible for inflammatory process
ARDS - Acute Respiratory Distress Syndromeoccurs when fluid builds up in the tiny, elastic air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs. More fluid in your lungs means less oxygen can reach your bloodstream. This deprives your organs of the oxygen they need to function
IRDS - Infant Respiratory Distress Syndromecaused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. It is the leading cause of death in preterm infants
Pneumothoraxcollection of air or gas in the pleural space that causes an uncoupling of the lung from the chest wall. pneumothorax may interfere with normal breathing. It is often called collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to atelectasis
Pleural effusionexcess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs; Exudative pleural effuisions occur when the pleura is damaged, e.g., by trauma, infection or malignancy, and transudative pleural effusions develop when there is either excessive production of pleural fluid or the resorption capacity is exceeded.
Pneumonia inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli


Acute respiratory failureheadache, confusion, dyspnea, dizziness, tremor
Pulmonary hypertensionshortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, leg swelling
Pulmonary venous tromboembolismright sided HF, dyspnea, tachypnea, chest pain
Pulmonary malignanciescoughing, hemoptysis, chest pain, pleural effusion
Acute bronchitiscoughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever
Chronic bronchitisshortness of breath and cough with sputum production
EmphysemaYou're so short of breath, you can't climb stairs, your lips or fingernails turn blue or gray with exertion
Bronchiectasishemoptysis, fever, nigh sweats, skin pallor, digital clubbing
Bronchiolitisbronchospasms, wheezing, crackles, decreased breath sounds
Cystic fibrosisdiabetes, male infertility, cirrhosis of liver, digital clubbing
Acute tracheobronchial obstructionno air movement on auscultation
Epiglottitisinability to swallow, drooling, dysphagia, dysphonia, stridor
Diffuse interstitial lung diseaseprogressive dyspnea with nonproductive cough, rapid shallow brething
Sarcoidosismalaise fatique, weight loss, chest discmofort
Hypersensitivity pneumonititischills, sweating, shivering, myalgias, lehargy, malaise
ARDS - Acute Respiratory Distress SyndromeSevere shortness of breath, rapid breathing, low BP, extreme tiredness
IRDS - Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome fast breathing, a fast HR, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting and blue skin
PneumothoraxChest pain and sometimes mild breathlessness
Pleural effusionShortness of breath, chest pain, especially on breathing in deeply (pleurisy, or pleuritic pain)
Pneumonia cough with phlegm, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing


Cushing's diseaseSecondary hypercortisolism, hyperactive pituitary gland oversecreting ACTH which induces adrenal cortex to produce too much cortisol
Cushing's syndromePrimary hypercortisolism, adrenal cortex producing excess ammount of cortisol
Diabetes mellitus 110%, aka insulin-dependent diabetes, autoimmune destruction of β cells of pancreas
Diabetes mellitus 290%, aka noninsulin-dependent diabetes , resistance to action of insulin on peripheral tissue
Diabetes insipidus (central/nephrogenic)low level of ADH characterised by excessive loss of water in the urine
Gestational diabetes mellitusdisorder of glucose intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnacy.
insulin resistance due to placental hormones - Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin, estrogen and cortisol
Gigantismgrowth hormone (anterior pituitary) excess before epiphyses are closed - puberty
Acromegalygrowth hormone (anterior pituitary) excess in adults
Grave's diseaseaka toxic diffuse goiter. Autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidismis the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormones (T3,T4) by the thyroid gland
Hashimoto's diseasechronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, your immune system attacks your thyroid.It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidismaka non toxic goiter. Thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone
Hyperparathyroidismoveractivity of the parathyroid glands (painful bones, abdominal groans, kidney stones, mental moans)
Hypoparathyroidismdecreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone causing cramping and twitching of muscles or tetany
Pseudohypoparathyroidismcondition associated primarily with resistance to the parathyroid hormone. Patients have a low serum calcium and high phosphate, but the PTH level is actually appropriately high (due to the low level of calcium in the blood)
SIADH - Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretionis characterized by excessive release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary gland or another (ectopic) source
Primary hyperaldosteronismConn's syndrome - excess production of the aldosterone by the adrenal glands resulting in low renin levels
Secondary hyperaldosteronismIncreased adrenal production of aldosterone in response to nonpituitary, extra-adrenal stimuli, including renal artery stenosis and hypovolemia
Primary adrenocortical insufficiencyAddison's disease - endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones (cortisol and possibly aldosterone)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasiaaka adreno genital syndrome. Large adrenal gland with no cortisol
Pheochromocytomaadrenal medulla tumor; excessive production of catecholamines (epinephrine + norepinephrine)
Hyperprolctinemiaanterior pituitary disorder - adenoma - causing increased prolactin level
Pancreatic endocrine neoplasmsInsulinoma(β cell), Glucagonoma(α cell), Somatostatinoma(δ cell)


Cushing's diseaseextra fat around neck, moon face, fatigue, irregular menstruation
Cushing's syndromeHigh BP, abdominal obesity, fat lump between the shoulders, weak muscles, weak bones, acne
Diabetes mellitus 1polyuria, polydipsia, dry mouth, polyphagia and weight loss
Diabetes mellitus 2polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, blurred vision, itchiness, peripheral neuropathy, recurrent vaginal infections, and fatigue
Diabetes insipidus (central/nephrogenic)Excessive urination and also extreme thirst, cell shrinkage
Gestational diabetes mellituslow blood sugar, and jaundice. If untreated, it can also cause seizures or stillbirth
Gigantismvery large hands and feet, thick toes and fingers, a prominent jaw and forehead, coarse facial features
AcromegalySoft tissue swelling visibly resulting in enlargement of the hands, feet, nose, lips and ears, and a general thickening of the skin
Grave's diseaseinsomnia, hand tremor, hyperactivity, hair loss, excessive sweating, shaking hands, itching, heat intolerance, weight loss despite increased appetite, diarrhea, exopthalmos
HyperthyroidismTachycardia, heat intolerance, increased metabolic rate, weight loss,
Hashimoto's diseasecold intolerance,Weight gain with poor appetite, hoarse voice, myxedema, hair loss, heavy menstrual periods
Hypothyroidismlook above /\
Hyperparathyroidismweakness and fatigue, depression, bone pain, muscle soreness, kidney stones
Hypoparathyroidismunpleasant tingling sensation around the mouth and in the hands and feet, as well as muscle cramps and severe spasms known as "tetany" that affect the hands and feet, bone pain
PseudohypoparathyroidismCataracts, dental problems numbness, seizures, tetany
SIADH - Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretionConfusion, disorientation, delirium, muscle weakness, generalized seizures, coma
Primary/secondary hyperaldosteronismFatigue, headache, high BP, hypokalemia, hypernatraemia, hypomagnesemia, muscle spasms, muscle weakness, numbness, polyuria ,polydipsia, tingling
Primary adrenocortical insufficiencyhypoglycemia, dehydration, weight loss, and disorientation, low BP
Congenital adrenal hyperplasiavomiting due to salt-wasting leading to dehydration, sexual infantilism: absent or delayed puberty, clitoromegaly, enlarged clitoris and shallow vagina
PheochromocytomaHigh blood pressure, rapid or forceful heartbeat, profound sweating, severe headache, tremors, paleness in the face
Hyperprolctinemiahypoestrogenism with anovulatory infertility and a decrease in menstruation, amenorrhoea
Pancreatic endocrine neoplasmsextra amounts of hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, and glucagon, that cause signs and symptoms