Patomorph final review

alapaj's version from 2017-06-07 18:26


Question Answer
increased cell and organ size is calledhypertrophy
increased cell numbers is calledhyperplasia
decreased cell and organ size is calledatrophy
change of phenotype of diffrentiated cells is calledmetaplasia
tissue necrosis in which the component cells are dead but the architecture is preservedcoagulative necrosis
necrosis in which inflammatory cells and leukocytes digest the tissueliquefative necrosis
coagulative necrosis affects...all solid organs except the brain
necrosis of limb involving multiple tissue layersgangrenous necrosis
foci of tuberculous infection. cheese like apperance, architecture destroyedcaseous necrosis
liquefative necrosis initiated with inflammation givespus
fat destruction due to release of pancreatic lipases is calledfat necrosis (Balser's necrosis)
form of necrosis seen in immune reactions involving blood vesselsfibrinoid necrosis
vascular reactions to inflammationvasodilation, increased vascular permeability
E-selectin function (CD62E)responsible for recruiting leukocytes to the site of the injury
inflamatory factors responsible for vasodilationprostaglandins
inflamatory factors responsible for vasoconstrictionthromboxane, leukotrienes
leakage of fluid only is calledtransudate
leakage of fluid, proteins and cells is calledexudate
collection of neutrophills is calledabscess
steps in acute inflammationincreased blood flow, increased vascular permeability, adhesion and migration, phagocytosis, resolution
granulation tissue in the wound is present up to ... 10 days
inflammation in the wound is present up to...3 days
abnormal accumulation of collagen is calledkeloid
granulation tissue consist ofcapillary buds and fibroblasts
infarct caused by arterial occlusion is calledpale infarct
form of coagulative necrosis that develops in ischemic tissue, where the blood supply is inadequate to keep tissue viable is calleddry gangrene
gangrene characterized by thriving bacteria with the risk of sepsis is calledwet gangrene
event occuring during DIC or heart failure in organs with dual blood supply from the branching ends of two large arterieswatershed infarction
organs affected the most in watershed infarctionspleenic flexure, brain
mural thrombus definitionone attached to the wall of the endocardium in a diseased area.
parietal thrombus definitionan arterial thrombus adhering to one side of the wall of the vessel.
Chicken fat clots are yellow, rubbery, don’t adhere to vessel walls. features ofpostmortem blood clot
characteristic feature of thrombilines of Zahn
The ANA test is a simple blood test that finds the presence of...antibodies that mistakenly attack healthy proteins in the body (SLE, RA)
Burkitts lymphoma is associated with which etiological factorEBV
a benign tumorlike nodule composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues normally present in the affected part is calledhamartoma
a mass of histologically normal tissue in an abnormal location is calledchoristoma
alkaline dye industry is a RF for which tumorcarcinoma of the urinary bladder
disease of the kidneys that primarily affects men, causing blood in the urine, hearing loss and eye problems is calledAlport syndrome
features of Marfan syndromedisordered connective tissue, aortic cystic necrosis, long extremities, spider figure
form of arteriosclerosis in which extensive calcium deposits are found in the tunica media of the artery with little obstruction of the lumen is calledMönckeberg's arteriosclerosis
A malignant neoplasm derived from skeletal (striated) muscle, occurring in children or, less commonly, in adultsrhabdomyosarcoma
Milroy disease definitionhereditary permanent lymphedema of the legs due to lymphatic obstruction.
myxoma isa rare, primary tumor of the heart. It is the most common of all benign heart tumors.
Aschoff bodies are characteristic forrheumatic endocarditis
tetrallogy of Fallotpulmonary artery stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, overriding aorta, intraventricular septal defect
Libman-Sack Endocarditis is associated withSLE
Goodpasture syndrome featuresautoantibodies (IgG) directed against collagen IV deposited in basement menbrane of kidney or lung alveoli. Leads to RPGN
most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adultsmembranous gromerulonephritis
clear RCC featuresVHL mutation, develops in cortex, clear cytoplasm due to lipid accumulation, multifocal
Wartins tumor featureregular double layer of eosinophills based on lymphoid stroma. benign tumor of salivary glands
Budd-Chiarri syndromeobstruction of the hepatic veins and its clinical manifestations (ascites, jaundice, hepatomegaly)
Councilman bodiesRed-staining dead liver cells found in yellow fever, hepatitis and other serious liver disorders
Negri bodiesintracytoplasmic inclusion bodies found in the brain and central nervous system cells of rabies victims.
Mallory body found in the liver cells. It is typically associated with acute alcoholic liver injury
Schiller–Duval body is a feature ofyolk sac tumor
Gleason score is used do evaluateprostate
most common breast carconimainfiltrating ductal carcinoma
adenomyosis definitionpresence of endometrial glands and stroma in myometrium
endometriosis tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grow in other parts of the body
Psammoma bodies are characteristic forovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, meningioma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid
Melanoma assesment scaleClark and Breslow staging
Duke criterium is used forinfective endocarditis
Marsh criterium is used inceliac disease
Palisade arrangement of cells is characteristic forBCC of skin
dyskeratosisan abnormal or premature keratinization of epithelial cells
papilomatosis Widespread formation of numerous papillomas
hyperkeratosisovergrowth of the cornified epithelial layer of the skin
acanthosisepidermal hyperplasia involving stratum spinosum
parakeratosispersistence of the nuclei of keratinocytes as they rise into the horny layer of the skin
PKD may lead toberry aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage
localisation of pilocytic astrocytomacerebellum

section 2

Question Answer
features of benign tumorscapsule, low mitotic index, well diffrentiated, slow growth
infarct caused by venous occlusion is calledred infarct
reversible cell injurycell swelling, mitochondrial swelling, plasma membrane alterations, ER dilation, eosinophilia
function of TNF and IL-1responsible for fever and leukocytes recruitment from bone marrow
Tay-Sachs disease featureaccumulation of a fatty substance (gangliosides) in the nervous system
Gaucher disease featureaccumulation of fatty molecules called cerebrosides. effects liver, spleen, bones and CNS
immunohistochemical stain for CD117 is characteristic forGIST
vascular feature in severe HTNonion skin apperance
Berger's diseaseblood vessels become inflamed and swollen, extremities affected, resulting in gangrene, RF smoking
Henoch Schonlein purpuraIgA mediated, immune complexes deposits in glomeruli.
disease associated with p-ANCAChurg Strauss syndrome, Microscopic polyangitis
disease associated with c-ANCAWegener granulomatosis
disease affecting temporal arteryGiant cell arteritis
disease associated with EC antibodiesKawasaki disease
Cushing syndromehypercortisolism
Conn syndromehyperaldosteronism
which thyroid carcinoma has the worst prognosisanaplastic thyroid cancer
least common cancer of thyroid anaplastic thyroid cancer
most common cancer of thyroidPTC - papillary thyroid carcinoma
thyroid carcinoma with good prognosisPTC, FTC
Krukenberg tumora metastatic carcinoma of the ovary, usually bilateral and secondary to a mucous carcinoma of the stomach, which contains signet-ring cells filled with mucus.
Brenner tumorbenign neoplasm of the ovary consisting fibrous tissue that contains nests of cells resembling transitional epithelium
thyrotoxicosishypermetabolism due to increased thyroid hormones
Call-Exner bodies are characteristic forGranulosa theca cell tumor
most common tumor of the breastsfibroadenoma
compound nevusNests of nevus cells within the epidermis as well as nevus cells within the dermis
dermal nevusNevus cells are confined to the dermis
junctional nevuscharacterized by a benign proliferation of nevus cells along the dermoepithelial junction
characteristic feature of poststreptococcal gromerulonephritishumps - subepithelial deposits
"tram-tracking" sign is characteristic formembranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) that results from basement membrane reduplication.
Fuhrman system is use to evaluaterenal cell cancer
serum alfa fetoprotein is markly elevated inyolk sac tumor
seborrheic keratosis synonymsbasal cell papilloma, senile wart
indian files pattern is characteristic forinvasive lobular carcinoma
nuclear grooves are characteristic forpapillary carcinoma of thyroid
Lambl excrescences are characteristic fornonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
characteristic feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma Orphan Annie eye nuclear inclusions
tumor associated with cerebellopontine angleacoustic Schwannoma
ankylosing spongylitis is associated withHLA-B27
3h after MIwaviness of fibers at the border
12h after MIbeggining of coagulative necrosis, edema, hemorrhage,
1-2d after MIcoagulative necrosis, eosinophilic infiltrate, loss of nuclei and striations
4-7d after MIphagocytosis of dead cells by macrophages
1-2w after MIformation of granulation tissue, tissue rich in blood vessels
Rosenthal fibers are associated withpilocytic astrocytoma

vulva/breasts/skin/male reproductive

Question Answer
koilocytes definitioncell infected with HPV
koilocytes are present inall HGSIL (CIN II, CIN III)
hobnail cells are associate with exposure todiethylosilbestrol
diethylosilbestrol is a RF forclear cell adenocarcinoma
ectropionpresence of glandular epithelium in vaginal portion
struma ovariitumor of the ovary when thyroid tissue is present
immature teratoma of ovary(malignant) same as mature but contains neuroepithelium
features of yolk sac tumorelevated alfa fetoprotein, schiller-duval bodies
tumor proucing HCGchoriocarcinoma (germ cell tumor)
tumor producing estrogengranulosa theca cell tumor
cells in granulosa theca cell tumor responible for estrogen productionCarl-Exner bodies
most commom cause of vaginal pathological bleedingendometrial polyp
frank carcinoma gene mutationsp53/BRCA1
Krukenberg tumora metastatic carcinoma of the ovary, usually bilateral and secondary to a mucous carcinoma of the stomach, which contains signet-ring cells filled with mucus.
Brenner tumorbenign neoplasm of the ovary consisting fibrous tissue that contains nests of cells resembling transitional epithelium
carcinoid synonymneuroendocrine tumor
characteristic features of condyloma acuminatumkoilocytes
Sarcoma botryoidesaffect children <5 y.o.- multiple polypoid masses "bunch of grapes", it's derrived from skeletal muscles
high estrogen leads toendometrial hyperplasia
indian files pattern is characteristic forinvasive lobular carcinoma of the breast
bloody discharge from the nipple is associated withpolipomatosis
germ cell tumorsteratoma, dysgerminoma, endodermal sinus tumor, choriocarcinoma
surface epithelial tumorsserous, mucinous, endometroid, brenner, cystadenofibroma
MaculeFlat lesion of a different color than the surrounding skin; less than 1 cm in diameter
PatchFlat lesion of a different color than the surrounding skin; larger than 1 cm in diameter
PapuleSmall, palpable, elevated skin lesion less than 1 cm in diameter
PlaqueSmall, palpable, elevated skin lesion larger than 1 cm in diameter
Hypospadiasurethral meatus opens on the ventral surface of the penis.
Epispadiasurethral meatus opens on the dorsal surface of the penis.
the most common testicular germ cell tumorseminoma
features of SCCintracellular bridges
Bowen diseaseCIS - grey white plaque presented on the shaft of the penis
epithelloid cellstightly packed macrophages that resemble epithelial cells
most common germ cell tumor of the ovarymature teratoma

section 4 GI/liver/heart/kidneys/thyroid

Question Answer
pleomorphic adenomabenign, mixed tumor (epithelial/mesenchymal) of salivary glands
which structure is affected by neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid)appendix
barret esophagusmetaplasia - squamous > columnar
erosionsuperficial gnawing limited to epithelium
ulcerationgnawing of deep layers - mucosa, submucosa etc
atresiaincountinous esophagus (the gap)
Sialadenitisinflammation of the salivary glands
occlusion of the salivary ducts by stonessialolithiasis
Sjögren syndromeautoimmune origin, dry eyes, dry mouth), and an associated connective tissue disease, most often RA
pyloric stenosis symptomspalpable mass, projectile vomiting
Zollinger-Ellison syndromegastric acid hypersecretion due to gastrin-secreting islet cell tumor of the pancreas
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)autosomal dominant condition characterized by the presence of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps.(APC gene)
acute viral hepatitis manifestationsjaundice, elevated AST, ALT
hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with HBV, and pressents ground glass hepatocytes
Reye syndrome is characterized byencephalopathy, coma, and microvesicular fatty liver (disorder of young children)
mutation of which gene leads to colon cancerAPC
right to left shunttetrallogy of Fallot, transposition of great arteries, persistent truncus arteriosus
left to right shuntspatent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect
Lambl excrescencesleaflet nodules resulting from nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
most common cause of hematuriaIgA nephropathy (Berger's disease)
Graves disease antobodiesTSI (thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin)
hurthle cells are characteristic forHashimoto thyroiditis
medullary carcinoma of thyroid is associated withRET mutations