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PATHOPHYSYOLOGY

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brendonlc123's version from 2017-02-05 00:38

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Question Answer
minute ventilation AKA minute volumeamount of air moved in and out of the lung in one minute. / Determined by multiplying the tidal volume by the frequency of ventilation in one minute.
tidal volume (Vt)the volume of air breathed in with each individual breath.
respiratory control centers found in the brainstem / (3 groups) doral, ventral and pontine respiratory groups.
ventral respiratory group (VRG)These are soley responsible for sending nerve impulses to the spinal cord to be transmitted to the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles causing them to contract. these are a column of neurons located in anterior portion of the medulla. contains both inspiratory and expiratory neurons that are responsible for initiating neural impulses that stimulate the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, causing them to contract, which results in inhaltion.
dorsal respiratory group (DRG)located posterior to VRG / they relay the sensory information to the VRG to provide further input on depth and rate of respiration.
Stretch receptorsfound in the smooth muscle of the airways. they measure the size and volume of the lungs and stimulate a decrease in the rate of volume of ventilation when stretched by high tidal volumes to protect against lung over-inflation.
peripheral chemoreceptorslocated in aortic arch and carotid bodies in the neck / As level of oxygen in blood decreases, these signal the respiratory center in the brainstem to increase rate and depth of respiration.
aerobic metabolismthe breakdoen of molecules such as glucose through a series of reactions that produce energy within the cells in the presence of oxygen.
aerobicwith oxygen
anerobicwithout oxygen
airway resistancerelated to the ease of airflow down the conduit of airway structures leading to the alveoli.
alveolar ventilationthe amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute
anerobic metabolism breakdown of molecules in the cells w/o the presence of oxygen.
Boyle's Lawvolume of gas is inversely proportionate to the pressure. (Ventilation confirms to Boyle's Law)
central chemoreceptors located near respiratory center in the medulla. These are sensiitive to carbon dioxide and changes in the PH of the cerebrospinal fluid.
compliancea maeasure of the ability of the chest wall and lung stretch, distend and expand.
dead air space (VD) anatomical areas in the respiratory tract where air collects during inhalation (areas where no gas exchange occurs. air that moves in and out of these areas is not involved in gas exchange and is wasted.
frequency of ventilation (f) generally calculated as the number of ventilations in one minute. / formula is minute ventilation = tidal volumt (Vt) ✖ frequency of ventilation (f per minute)
glycosis when glucose crosses the cell membrane, it is broken down into pyruvic acid molecules
irritant receptorsfound in airways / sensitive to irritating gases, aerosols and particles. they simulate a cough, bronchoconstriction and an increased ventilatory rate.
J-receptorsfound in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli ad are sensitive to increase in pressure in the capillary. / when activated, they stimulate rapid, shallow ventilation.
chemoreceptorsmonitors Ph, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in arterial blood. / 2 groups: central and ventral brochoconstriction, and an increase ventilatory rate.
laryngeal spasmwhere the vocal cords spasm and close together, which prevents any air from passing through into the trachea.
hydrostatic pressurethe force inside the vessel or capillary bed generated by the contraction of the heart and the blood pressure.
Frank-Serling law of the heartthe stretch of the muscle fiber at the end of diastole. / determines the force available to eject the blood fro the ventricle.
deoxyhemoglobina hemoglobin molecule that has no oxygen attached
cardiac outputamount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one minute
baroreceptorsStretch-sensitive receptors, located in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses, that detect changes in blood pressure.
afterloadThe resistance in the aorta that must be overcome by contraction of the left ventricle to eject the blood. The force generated by the left ventricle must overcome the pressure in teh aorta to move the blood forward.
ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratiothe dynamic relationship between the amount of ventilation the alveoli recieves and the amount of perfusion through the capillaries surrounding the alveoli.
systemic vascular resistanceresistance that is offered to blood flow through a vessel. (as a vessel constricts, resistance inside the vessel increases, which typically increases pressure inside the vessel.)
stroke volumethe volume of blood ejected by teh left ventricle with each contraction.
preloadpressure in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (the resting phase of the cardiac cycle.)
plasma oncotic pressure AKA colloid oncotic pressureresponsible for keeping fluid inside the vessels. opposite of hydrostatic pressure, exerts a "pull" inside the vessels.
pontine respiratory center AKA pneumotaxic centersends inhibitory impulses to the VRG1 to turn off the inhalation.
microcirculationthe flow of blood through the smallest blood vessels.
oxyhemoglibinoxygen molecule bound with hemoglobin.
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