Pathoma Pulm HY Associations

gsafsaf's version from 2015-05-28 05:28

Nasopharynx + Larynx

Question Answer
Adenovirus Infectious rhinitis
Asthma, eczema, eosinophilsAllergic rhinitis
Child w nasal polypsCF
Adult w nasal polyps + bronchospasmASA-intoleran asthma
Young male w profuse epistaxisAngiofibroma
EBVNasopharyngeal carcinoma
African child + enlarged cervical lymph nodes Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Chinese adult + enlarged cervical lymph nodesNasopharyngeal carcinoma
Pleomorphic KERATIN+ epithelial cells in background of lymphocytesNasopharyngeal carcinoma
Keratin +Proves sample is EPITHELIAL, as these are intermediate filaments of epi cells --> rules IN carcinoma
Child drooling w dysphagia, muffled voice, inspiratory stridorH. influenzae epiglottitis (medical emergency)
Parainfluenza virusLaryngotracheobronchitis (croup)
"Barking" cough + inspiratory stridor Laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)
Inspiratory stridorParainfluenza virus + H. influenzae
Bilateral vocal cord nodules; hoarseness that resolves w restDegenerative (myxoid) connective tissue - "wear & tear" problem
Finger like projection off vocal cord + hoarsenessLaryngeal Papilloma (usually remains benign)
Children w/ Laryngeal Papillomamultiple papillomas
Adults w/ Laryngeal PapillomaSingle papilloma
HPV 6 + 11; koilocytic change on biopsyLaryngeal Papilloma (usually remains benign)
Alcohol + tobacco + hoarsenessLaryngeal carcinoma (squamous cell)

Pulm. Infxns

Question Answer
Viral pneumoniadamaged cilia --> superimposed bacterial pneumonia
Mucus pluggingbacterial distal to block
Pleuritic chest painBradykinin + Prostaglandin E2 mediated
Localized consolidation on XrayLobar pneumonia
Patchy consolidations on XrayBronchopneumonia
No consolidation, increased lung markings on Xray Interstitial pneumonia
BacterialLobar + bronchopneumonia
Atypical/ViralInterstitial pneumonia
Strep. pneumoniae + KlebsiellaLobar pneumonia
Air sacs full of pink frothy exudate + neutrophilsLobar pneumonia
Middle-aged + elderlyStrep. pneumoniae lobar pneumonia
Currant jelly sputumthick mucoid capsule
Abscess complicationKlebsiella lobar pneumonia
DiabeticsKlebsiella lobar pneumonia
Elderly in nursing homesKlebsiella lobar pneumonia
HepatizationLobar pneumonia --> lung takes on solid appearance like liver (red or grey)
Bilateral pneumoniaBronchopneumonia
MC cause of 2ndary pneumonia overallStaph. aureus Bronchopneumonia
Abscess complication or empyemaStaph. aureus bronchopneumonia
MC cause of 2ndary pneumonia in COPD ptsH. influenzae bronchopneumonia
CF pneuomoniaPseudomonas aeruginosa bronchopneumonia
Community acquired in COPD ptsMoraxella catarrhalis or Legionella pneuomophila bronchopneumonia
Intracellular organism on silver stainLegionella pneumophila bronchopneumonia
Empty air sacs, but inflammatory cells in lung wallsInterstitial pneumonia
Complication of Mycoplasma pneumoniae interstitial pneumoniaautoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgM a/g I antigen on RBCs; cold agglutinins)
Farmers + vetsCoxiella burnetii (spore-forming) interstitial pneumonia
Causes pneumonia, no need for arthropod, highly heat-resistant endospores, no skin rashCoxiella burnetii (distinctions from other rickettsiae)
Foci of fibrosis + calcificationPrimary TB Ghon Complex
2ndary TBMiliary TB or TB Bronchopneumonia
TB in kidneySterile pyuria


Question Answer
Trachea shifted TOWARDS injured sideSpontaneous pneumothorax
Trachea shifted AWAY from injured sideTension pneumothorax


Decreased FEV, > Decreased FVC & Decreased FEV, to FVC ratio & Increased TLC
Question Answer
Potential for cor pulmonale to dvlpchronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis
PAS+ hepatocytes w globules of accumulated mis-folded protein in ERa1at-deficiency
PiZZ homozygotesmost severe a1at-deficiency (codominant trait)
Increased FRCemphysema
Decreased FRCpulmonary fibrosis
Induces Th2 phenotype in CD4+Asthmatic allergen
Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-10
Histamine induced vasodilation takes place in thearterioles
Histamine induced leaking of fluids takes place in thepost-capillary venules
Histamine releaseproduction of leukotrienes C4, D4, E4
vasoconstriction of blood vessel SM, increased vasc permeability, bronchoconstrictionleukotrienes C4, D4, E4
Charcot-Leyden crystals from eosinophilsasthma
Bronchospasm (as opposed to bronchoconstriction)Aspirin-intolerant asthma
Necrotizing inflammation w damage to airway wallsbronchiectasis
CF/Kartagener/tumor/foreign body/infxn/allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosisbronchiectasis
Asthmatics + CFallergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis --> bronchiectasis
Foul-smelling sputumbronchiectasis
2ndary amyloidosisbronchiectasis
Overproduction of amyloid light chain due to plasma cell problemprimary amyloidosis
Acute phase reactant SAA deposition --> AAsecondary amyloidosis

Restrictive diseases

Decreased FVC > decreased FEV, & FEV,/FVC ratio is normal or increased & Decreased TLC
Question Answer
Cyclical lung injury + healingidiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Injured pneumocytes release TGF-ßidiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Dx needs to exclude bleomycin, amiodarone, radiation therapyidiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Honeycomb lungfibrosis xray finding of small cystic spaces w irregularly thickened walls
Diffuse fibrosis + rheumatoid arthritisCaplan syndrome
collections of carbon-laden macrophages (not clinically significant; pollution)anthracosis
Impaired formation of phagolysosome by macrophagessilicosis
only pneumoconiosis w increased risk for TBsilicosis
similar to sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas in lung + hilar lymph nodes)berylliosis
Exposure to asbestos --> more common to get lung cancer thanmesothelioma
long brown beads of iron in dumbbell shapeferruginous body (asbestos bodies)
Likely due to CD4+ T cell response to an unknown antigensarcoidosis
Epithelial histiocytesarcoidosis
asteroid body (funny looking giant cell)sarcoidosis
can mimic Sjögren syndromesarcoidosis
Elevated serum ACEsarcoidosis
Granulomas + eosiniphilshypersensitivity pneumonitis

Pulmonary HTN

Question Answer
Plexiform lesioncapillaries that accumulate together
Exertional dyspnea in young femalePrimary pulmonary HTN
BMPR2 mutationproliferation of vascular smooth muscle
Hypoxemia or increased volume in pulmonary circuitSecondary pulmonary HTN
Hyaline membrane migration into alveoliAcute respiratory stress syndrome
White-out on CT scanAcute respiratory stress syndrome
type I and II pneumocyte damageAcute respiratory stress syndrome
Ventilation w positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)Acute respiratory stress syndrome
Recovery complicated by interstitial fibrosistype II pneumocyte damage in Acute respiratory stress syndrome
Inhibits surfactant productioninsulin (think maternal diabetes)