Pathoma - 3 (Neoplasia)

shaile's version from 2015-05-29 18:00

Section 1

Question Answer
What are 2 ways to determine clonality?G6PD isoforms and Androgen Receptor isoforms
3:1 kappa to lambda ratio?hyperplasia, which is polyclonal
>6:1 kappa to lambda ratio suggests?lymphoma, which is MONOCLONAL
1:3 kappa to lambda ratio suggests?lymphoma, which is MONOCLONAL
true or false: benign tumors are polyclonal and malignant tumors are monoclonal?FALSE! both benign and malignant tumors are MONOCLONAL
How many cell divisions occur before you notice the earliest clinical sxs of cancer?30 cell divisions
another name for precancerous change?dysplasia
What are the 4 categories of oncogenes?growth factors, growth factor receptors, signal transducers, cell cycle regulators
Ras-GDPinactivated Ras --> no signal to the nucleus
Ras-GTP: activated or inactivated?activated Ras --> sends growth signals to the nucleus
which enzymes cleaves Ras-GTP to Ras-GDP?GTPase associated protein

Section 2

Question Answer
what cancer is associated with alkylating agents?leukemia and lymphoma
what 2 cancers is associated with arsenic?squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and liver angiosarcoma--- poisoning detected in nails clippings, hair
what 2 weird cancers are associated with smoking?kidney and bladder cancer
what cancer is associated with nitrosamines?intestinal type gastric carcinoma
which cancer is associated with Naphthylamine (derived from cigarette smoke)?
what cancer is associated with asbestos?
what cancer is associated with nickel, chromium, beryllium, or silica?
bladder urothelial carcinoma
Lung cancer>> mesothelioma (cancer of pleura)
Lung carcinoma (occupational exposure)
Which cancer is associated with vinyl chloride?liver angiosarcoma

Section 3

Question Answer
Which oncogenic virus is associated with CNS lymphoma in AIDS?EBV
which oncogenic virus is associated with cervical adenocarcinoma?HPV 16, 18, 31,33
what 3 cancers are associated with ionizing radiation (nuclear reactor accidents and radiotherapy)?
Nonionizing (ex: UVB sunlight) associated with what cancers?
AML, CML, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid--- via hydroxyl free radicals that damage DNA
Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carincoma, melanoma of the skin-- creates pyrimidine dimers (damage DNA) that are normally removed by restriction endonuclease (mutation of this enzyme in Xeroderma pigmentosum)
if DNA repair is not possible, how does p53 induce apoptosis?p53 upregulates BAX, which disrupts Bcl2 --> allows cytochrome c to leak from mitochondria
explain how Rb regulates progression from G1 --> S?EF2 is released when Rb is phosphorylated by cyclinD/CDK4 complex, allowing cell to go from G1 to S
what type of mutation is characterized by UNILATERAL Rb?sporadic mutation (vs. germline mutation which results in familial Rb)

Section 4

Question Answer
what tumor is associated with overexpression of PDGFB?astrocytoma
what growth factor receptor is associated with MEN2 and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid?RET = neural growth factor receptor
point mutation in which growth factor receptor is associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumor?KIT = stem cell growth factor receptor
whats the function of Ras gene (signal transducer)?GTP-binding protein
whats the function of ABL (signal transducer)? tyrosine kinase
what tumor is assocaited with signal transducer ABL?CML and some ALL
what class of oncogenes are "-myc"transcription factors = TF go to the nucleus and upregulate genes needed for growth
what tumor is associated with c-myc?burkitts lymphoma
t(8:14) c-myc
which tumor is associated with N-myc?neuroblastoma
which tumor is associated with L-myc?small cell lung carcinoma
t(11:14)mantle cell lymphoma (cyclin D on chromosome 11, IgH on chromosome 14)
what tumor is associated with cyclin D?mantle cell lymphoma
what tumor is associated with CDK4 (cyclin dependent kinase)?melanoma
whats the function of cyclin D?cyclin D allows G1 --> S

Section 5

Question Answer
Bcl2 is overexpressed in whcih cancer?follicular lymphoma (if B cells are not able to go thru apoptosis in the follicle, B-cells pile up --> follicular lymphoma
t(14;18)follicular lymphoma (Bcl2 on chromosome 18)
follicular lymphoma is due to what?increased Bcl2 --> mitochondrial membrane is further stabilized, inhibiting apoptosis --> B-cells pile uphow do tumor
How do tumor cells evade immune surveillance?by downregulating the expression of MHC Class I
Name the 4 carcinomas that like to spread hematogenously?renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, FOLLICULAR carcinoma of the thyroid
keratin stains?epithelium
vimentin stains?mesenchyme/connective tissue = SARCOMA
desmin stains?muscle cells
GFAP stains?neuroglia
neurofilament stains?neurons
ER stains?breast epithelium
chromogranin stains?neuroendocrine cells = small cell lung carcinoma and carcinoid tumors
S-100 stains melanoma