Pathoma - 17 (CNS Part 1)

jmanderson's version from 2016-03-15 16:15

Section 1

Question Answer
What does the wall of the neural tube form?CNS tissue
What does the hollow lumen of the neural tube form?ventricles and spinal cord canal
what does the neural crest cells form?PNS
failure of the posterior vertebral arch to closespina bifida
whats the most common cause of hydrocelphalus in newborns?congenital cerebral aqueduct stenosis
where is CSF produced?ependymal cells of choroid plexus lining the ventricles
what is hydrocephalus?abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles
failure of the cerebellar vermis to develop --> enlarged 4th ventricledandy walker malformation
whats the problem in Arnold Chiari Malformation Type II?herniation of the cerebellar vermis and tonsils thru the foramen magnum
what 2 disorders are a/w Arnold Chiari Malformation?1) syringomyelia 2) meningomyelocele

Section 2

Question Answer
what spinal cord lesion is a/w Arnold Chiari Malformation Type 2?syringomyelia
what does a lesion to the lateral horn of the hypothalamospinal tract produce?Horners syndrome
whats the transmission of polio?fecal-oral
what condition is characterized by inherited degneration of anterior motor horn?Werdnig Hoffman Disease
name 3 conditions that presents as floppy baby1) polio 2) west nile virus 3) werdnig hoffman disease
atropy and weakness of hands is an early sign of what spinal cord lesions?ALS
whats a familial cause of ALS? what enzyme defect?zinc-copper SOD1 mutation
SOD1 mutation is associated with what spinal cord disease?ALS
GAAFreidreichs Ataxia - chromosome 9
what is the role of frataxin?mitochondrial iron regulation --> loss of frataxin gene results in iron buildup with free radical damage
whats the cause of death in kids with freidrichs ataxia?Hypertrophic CardioMyopathy (HCM)

Section 3

Question Answer
what comprises the leptomeninges?pia and arachnoid (NOT DURA)
whats the most common cause of meningitis in kids and teens?Neisseria meningitis
how does Neisseria get to the meninges?enters thru nasopharynx --> then to blood -->choroid --> meninges
whats the most common cause of meningitis in adults and elderlyStrep pneumo
Whats the most common cause of meningitis in unvaccinated kids?H. influenza
whats the most VIRAL cause of meningitisCoxsackievirus
what level does the spinal cord end?L2
what level does the cauda equina and subarachnoid go to?S2
LP shows lymphocytes and DECREASED glucosefungal cause of meningitis

Section 4

Question Answer
What are the 2 classes of cerebrovascular disease?ischemia (85%) and hemorrhagic (15%)
whats a unique cause of global cerebral ischemia?repeated episodes of hypoglycemia (insulinoma) = glucose is crucial for energy source
what can repeated episodes of hypoglycemia cuase?global cerebral ischemia
what are the 3 watershed areas that are damaged with moderate global ischemia1) pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex --> cortical LAMINAR necrosis
2) pyramidal neurons of hippocampus
3) purkinje layer of cerebellum
whats the difference btw TIA and ischemic stroke?TIA: <24 hours. Ischemic stroke: > 24 hours
what are the 3 subtypes of ischemic strokesthrombotic, embolic, lacunar strokes
what type of infarct does thrombotic stroke lead to?PALE infarct = since the thrombus wont be lysed
what type of infarct does embolic stroke lead to?HEMORRHAGIC infarct --> embolus can be lysed and allow reperfusion
lacunar stroke to what area leads to pure motor strokeinternal capsule
lacunar stroke to what area leads to pure sensory stroke?thalamus
whats the cause of lacunar strokes?hyaline arteriosclerosis secondary to HTN in small lenticulostriate vessels
whats the earliest sign of ischemic stroke (12 hours after infarction)red neuron
whats the final stage of healing from ischemic stroke?fluid filled cystic space surrounded by gliosis = gliotic cyst
what is gliosisreactive astrocytes that will line the cystic space with gliotic connective tissue
whats the cause of intracerebral hemorrhage?rupture of charcot bouchard microaneurysm of lenticulostriate vessels
whats the most common site of intracerebral hemorrhage?basal ganglia
bleed at the bottom of the bransubarachnoid hemorrhage
what are 3 causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage?1) rupture of berry aneurysms 2) AV malformations 3) ANTICOAGULATED state
why do berry anuerysms have an increased risk for rupture?lack MEDIA layer at branch points
whats the most common location of berry aneurysms?anterior communicating artery