Pathoma - 14 (Male GU)

mlinnie's version from 2018-11-12 00:02

Section 1

Question Answer
Failure of urethral folds to closehypospadias
Abnormal positioning of genital tubercleepispadias
Which penis condition is a/w bladder exstrophy?epispadias
what virus causes condyloma acuminata?HPV 6,11
koilocytic changeHPV
name 3 precursor in situ lesions for PENILE squamous cell carcinoma1) Bowen disease (leukoplakia)
2) Erythroplasia of Queyrat (erythroplakia)
3) Bowenoid papulosis = multiple reddish papules on skin of penis
what are complications a/w cryptorchidism?testicular atrophy, infertility, increased risk for seminoma
what is orchitis?inflammation of the testicle
whats the cause of orchitis in young adults vs. older adults?young adults: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria.
Older adults: E. coli and Pseudomonas (UTI that spreads to testicle)
inflammation of the testicles characterized by granulomas involving seminiferous tubules is caused by?autoimmune orchitis
what causes testicular torsion?failure of testes to attach to inner lining of scrotum via processus vaginalis
pt presents with sudden testicular pain with ABSENT cremasteric reflextesticular torsion
which side does varicocele occur?LEFT SIDE
which carcinoma is associated with varicocele?renal cell carcinoma = bc it likes to invade the LT renal vein
bag of worms in scrotumvaricocele
hydrocele = fluid collection within the _______?tunica vaginalis = membrane taht covers the testicle and internal surface of scrotum
what causes hydrocele?incomplete closure of processus vaginalis = leading to commincation with perionteal cavity (infants) and blockage of lymphatics (Adults)

Section 2

Question Answer
testicle is made up of 2 cell types...what are they?germ cells and sex-cord stroma
whats the most common testicular tumor (95%)?malignant germ cell tumors = specifically seminoma
what are the 2 types of testicular germ cell tumors?seminoma and nonseminomas (embryonal, yolk sac, choriocarcinoma, teratoma)
which testicular germ cell tumor forms a homogenous mass with NO hemorrhage or necrosis?seminoma (called dysgerminomas in ovaries)
which germ cell tumor is comprised of immature, primitive cells and can form a hemorrhage mass with necrosis?embryonal carcinoma
what are the tumor markers that increase in embryonal carcinomaincreased AFP or b-HCG
what happens if you give chemotherapy to a pt with testicular embyronal carcinoma?can differentiate into another type of germ cell tumor!
testicular tumor that is made up of placenta-like tissue, but villi are ABSENT!choriocarcinoma = increase b-HCG
why can a pt with testicular choriocarcinoma show hyperthryoidism and gynecomastia?b-HCG has same alpha subunit as TSH, LH, FSH
what is a teratoma?tumor composed of mature fetal tissue derived from 2 or 3 embryonic layers
whats the difference btw teratomas in males vs. females?females: BENIGN teratoma. males: MALIGNANT teratoma!
reinkes crystalsleydig cell tumor
what type of tumor is leydig cell tumor?sex-cord stromal tumor
name the 2 sex-cord stromal tumors?leydig cell tumor and sertoli cell tumor
whats the most common testicular tumor in pts age 15-40? >60?age 15-40: seminoma germ cell tumor.
>60: diffuse large B-cell LYMPHOMA
whats the most common cause of testicular mass in males >60?diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
hemorrhagic testicular massembryonal carcinoma

Section 3

Question Answer
What organ lies at the base of the bladder encircling the urethra?prostate
what are 2 bacterial causes of acute prostatitis in young men?chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea
what are 2 bacteria causes of acute prostatitis in older adults?E. coli and Pseudomonas (causes of UTI that spread to prostate)
male presents with dysuria and prostatic secretions show WBC but cultures are NEGATIVE...diagnosis?chronic prostatitis (vs. acute prostatitis which shows positive cultures)
where does BPH occur?central periurethral zone of the prostate
how does BPH lead to hydronephrosis?impaired bladder emptying leads to backing up of urine into kidney = hydronephrosis
whats the tx of BPH?alpha1-antagonist (terazosin) to relax SM or alpha1A antagonist (tamsulosin) AND finasteride (5a reductase inhibitor)
what are 3 risk factors of prostatic carcinoma?age, race (blacks >white > asian), and DIET HIGH IN SATURATED FATS
where does prostatic carcinoma localize?peripheral posterior region
decreased % free PSA suggests?prostatic carcinoma = bc cancer makes BOUND PSA
whats the MOA flutamide for the tx of prostatic cancerandrogen receptor antagonist
whats the tx for prostatic adenocarcinoma?localized: prostatectomy.
advanced: Leuprolide and Flutamide