Pathoma - 1

veyuxure's version from 2017-04-17 06:10

Section 1

Question Answer
Skeletal muscle changes to bone s/p trauma as part of healing processmyositis ossificans
ischemia is decreased blood flow thru an organ. arises with 2 reasons?decreased arterial perfusion and DECREASED VENOUS DRAINAGE (budd-chiari)
What are 2 common causes of budd chiari syndrome?polycythemia vera and LUPUS (hypercoagulable state)
whats an early sign of exposure to CO poisoning from gas heater?headache
whats pyknosis?nuclear condensation
whats karyorrhexis?nuclear fragmentation
whats karyolysis?nuclear dissolution
death of a large group of cells followed by INFLAMMATION?necrosis
name 3 organs that undergo liquifactive necrosis?brain (via microglial cells), abscess, pancreatitis (proteolytic enzymes from the pancreas liquifies parenchyma)
name 2 infection types that show caseous necrosis?TB or fungal infection
what type of necrosis is characterized by the fact that proteins coagulate so that cells retain their shape and organ structure is preserved?coagulative necrosis
Whats the difference btw dystrophic calcification vs. metastatic calcification?Dystrophic calcification = NECROTIC tissue, normal calcium and phosphate.

Metastatic calcification = NORMAL tissue with increased calcium or phosphate
what type of NECROSIS is seen in malignant HTN?fibrinoid necrosis = necrotic damage to blood vessel wall with fibrinoid deposition
what type of necrosis is seen in preeclampsia?fibrinoid necrosis of placenta!
what type of necrosis is seen in vasculitidis?fibrinoid necrosis

Section 2

Question Answer
Which enzymes mediate apoptosis?caspases = proteases (breaks down cytoskeleton) and endonucleases (breaks down DNA)
Which enzyme stabilizes the mitochondrial membrane to guard cytochrome c from leaking out?Bcl2
Name 3 pathways that activate caspases?1) intrinsic mitochondrial damage
2) extrinsic receptor-ligand pathway
3) cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell mediated pathway (perforins + granzymes activate caspases)
do you the T-cell have the ability to bind to self-Ag + MHC?POSITIVE selection
do you the T-cell bind too strongly to self-Ag?negative selection = if T-cell binds too strongly, T-cell will be destroyed
whats the mechanism by which cells die in negative selection?Fas ligand-Fas death receptor
How does CCl4 cause fatty liver?CCl4 is converted to free radical CCl3 --> results in cell injury to RER, and hence decreased production of apolipoproteins --> leads to fatty liver
how does CCl4 causes fatty liver?CCL4 is converted to free radical CCL3 --> damages RER --> no protein synthesis --> no apolipoproteins --> increase fat in liver --> fatty liver
what type of amyloidosis is seen in Familial Mediterranean Fever?secondary systemic amyloidosis = deposition of AA amyloid = due to serosal inflammation
what type of amyloid deposit is seen in familial amyloid cardiomyopathy?MUTATED transthyretin = leads to restrictive cardiomyopathy
Pt presents with thyroid mass and FNA and see "tumor in amyloid background"medullary carcinoma of the thyroid