robbypowell's version from 2015-11-11 13:37

renal cont.

Question Answer
“crescentic” GN associated with what two renal conditions and both cause what syndrome?Post-streptococcal GN & Goodpasture syndrome; Nephritic syndrome (rupture of glomerular capillaries)
Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Disease is akaGoodpasture syndrome
Pulmonary hemorrhages and hematurea is diagnostic of what condition?Goodpasture syndrome (Anti-glomerular BM disease)
exposure to organic solvents, tobacco smoke, viral infection, Cocaine inhalation, sepsis/bacteremia, genetic mutation involving HLA-DR15 can all provide an insult to blood vessels resulting in what disease?Goodpasture; (aka Anti-Glomerular BM disease)
disease Characterized by linear deposits of IgG + C3 (CF) on the GBM, and also to pulmonary alveolar capillary basement membraneGoodpasture (aka anti-glomerular BM disease)
Nephrotic syndrome definitively has what two features and does NOT have what 3 features?DOES: Proteinuria & Edema; DOESNOT: Hematuria, Azotemia, Hypertension
Nephritic syndrom definitvely does have what 3 features?Hematuria, Azotemia, Oliguria (& decreased GFR)
Decreased GFR is associated with what syndrome?Nephritic
Red cell casts in urine associated with what syndrome?Nephritic
Periorbital edema: positive... presence of what in urine would help to differentiate between nephritic and nephrotic syndrome?Blood (Hematuria)
Periorbital edema: positive... presence of what elevated levels in blood would help differentiate between nephritic and nephrotic syndrome?BUN (Urea Nitrogenous wastes in excess)
pool of end-stage diseases fed by a number of streams of specific types of glomerulonephritisChronic Glomerulonephritis
______ ______ can lead to patients developing Proteinuria, generalized edema, and HypertensionChronic Glomerulonephritis
Acute renal injury resulting in “Acute renal failure”, reversibleAcute Tubular Necrosis
The most common cause for acute renal failureAcute Tubular Necrosis
Characterized by destruction of renal tubules, and clinically by acute suppression of renal function –> Acute renal failureAcute Tubular Necrosis
What are the two main causes of Acute Tubular Necrosis?Ischemia & Nephrotoxicity
Acute Renal Failure is characterized by ____-uria or ____-uriaOliguria (very little pee pee) or Anuria (no go pee pee at all)
______ Acute Tubular Necrosis occurs mainly w/ a hypotensive episode--ShockIschemic
What antibiotic directly damages tubular cells, leading to Nephrotoxicity (and possible Acute Tubular Necrosis)Gentamycin
antibiotics (gentamicin), anesthetics, chemo drugs, heavy metals, organic solvents & poisons can all affect what part of kidney... leading to what condition?Tubules; Acute Tubular Necrosis
signs of what condition: Elevated BUN, azotemia/uremia, but no hematuria or HTN ... also SeizuresAcute Tubular Necrosis
patchy, multifocal tubular necrosis along the nephron & PCT w/ skipping areas of healthy tubulesIschemic Acute Tubular Necrosis
Diffuse tubular necrosis in PCTNephrotoxic Acute Tubular Necrosis
principal organism associated with Acute PyelonephritisE. Coli
common suppurative infection of the renal pelvis by bacteriaAcute Pyelonephritis
Acute Pyelonephritis is an infection of what area of kidney?Renal Pelvis
Enlarged Prostate w/ Urinary Tract Obstruction could lead to what Renal condition?Acute Pyelonephritis
Kidney stones could lead to what Renal condition?Acute Pyelonephritis (clog allows for back flow of bacteria... aka Vesicoureteral Reflux)
Vesicoureteral Reflux could lead to what Renal condition?Acute Pyelonephritis
signs: dysuria, frequency & urgency, w/ turbid urine containing many leukocytes especially PMNs; symptom: sudden onset back painAcute Pyelonephritis
How many kidneys affected in Acute PyelonephritisOne (unilateral)
Gross features of Renal Hyperemia, Multifocal abscesses of ONE kidneyAcute Pyelonephritis (renal pelvis bacterial infection)
chronic, persistent & potentially scarring, low grade infection of the kidneyChronic Pyelonephritis
If Acute Pyelonephritis is left untreated then can progress to ...Chronic Pyelonephritis
Recurrent w/ low back pain, Fever w/ frequent pyuria & bacteriuria, Pyelograms show shrinking and deformed kidneys secondary to scarringChronic Pyelonephritis
Irregularly scarred kidneys w/ gross deformityChronic Pyelonephritis
chronic symmetric scarringChronic glomerulonephritis
Dilatation & atrophy of tubules– imparting Thyroid-like appearance known as “Thyroidization of kidney”Chronic Pyelonephritis
most common inherited renal disorderPolycystic Disease of Kidney
disorder that Accounts for 10% of kidney cases requiring renal transplantation or renal dialysisPolycystic Kidney
Pattern of inheritance for Polycystic Kidney is Autosomal _____, on chromosome # ___Dominant; 16
Polycystic Kidney May be associated with cystic diseases of other organs like ___ as well as ____ aneurysm of the circle of WillisLiver; Berry aneurism
Polycystic Kidney disease affects how many kidneysBoth (bilateral)
Peak incidence of Wilm's Tumor is ___ to ___ years of age2-4yo
Wilm's Tumor (Nephroblastoma) Most common karyotypic defect is deletions in the short arm of chromosome ___11
What neoplasia Arises from renal blastema, (consists of primitive renal epithelium and stromal tissue)Wilm's Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
child presents w/ a large abdominal mass, intestinal obstruction, hypertension and MetastasisWilm's Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
what cancer accounts for ~ 90% of all renal cancers in adults (6th-7th decades) w/ definite male predilection (3:1)Renal Cell Carcinoma
what cancer Arises from renal tubular epitheliumRenal Cell Carcinoma
costo-vertebral pain, Palpable mass, Hematuria (most reliable feature seen in only 90% of cases) & Metastasis... what disorder?Renal Cell Carcinoma (renal tubular epithelium origin)
Renal Cell Carcinoma is usually a mass in what part of Kidney?Cortex
A 77 yom presented w an asymptomatic exophytic mass of left posterior maxilla, after a loose tooth in the area was extracted 3 months prior. The PMH is significant for smoking for the last 40 years. Patient had Hematuria. Upon biopsy the mass showed sheets of clear cells (containing lipid and/or glycogen)Renal Cell Carcinoma
renal disease that can be caused by genetic mutation involving HLA-DR15 among other thingsGoodpasture syndrome (nephritic)
Goodpasture syndrome can be associated with what genetic mutation?HLA-DR15

Renal Histo diagnostics (what disease)

Question Answer
Crescentic GN in ______ ______ showing collapsed glomerular tufts and crescent-shaped mass of proliferating parietal cellsGoodpasture Syndrome
Hypocellular bloodless & scarred glomeruli (H&E)Chronic Glomerulonephritis
scarred glomeruli (hypocellular) w/ trichrome stain showing “collagenized” glomeruliChronic Glomerulonephritis
Patchy interstitial clusters of neutrophils in the interstitial tissues and tubules, Glomeruli appear normalAcute Pyelonephritis
Tubules and interstitial areas loaded w/ neutrophilsAcute Pyelonephritis
Dilatation & atrophy of tubules– imparting Thyroid-like appearance known as “Thyroidization of kidney”Chronic Pyelonephritis
Widespread thickening of the Normal capillary basement membrane, mesangial sclerosis & Nodular sclerosis are symptomsDiabetic Nephropathy
hypercellular glomeruliPost-streptococcal GN (--> Nephritic syndrome)
Capillary lumen obliterated by proliferation of endothelial cellsPost-streptococcal GN (hyper cellular glomeruli) (--> Nephritic syndrome)
collapsed glomerular tufts and crescent-shaped mass of proliferating parietal cellsGoodpasture disease (anti-glomerular BM disease)
Patchy interstitial clusters of neutrophils in the interstitial tissues and tubules but Glomeruli appear normalAcute Pyelonephritis

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