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Pathology - Other Systems

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bjtmeyer's version from 2016-09-20 03:10

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Ankylosing SpondylitisSystemic condition characterized by inflammation of the spine and the larger peripheral joints
Males are at two to three times greater risk than females with peak onset observed between 20-40 years of age
Clinical presentation initially includes recurrent and insidious onset of back pain, morning stiffness, and impaired spinal extension
Arterial Insufficiency UlcerCharacterized by the narrowing of arterial vessels that impedes the delivery of oxygenated blood to tissues
Peripheral artery disease is typically linked to the development of arterial insufficiency ulcers; risk factors include atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and smoking
Typically heal by secondary intention with adequate blood supply and wound healing interventions
CelllulitisRefers to a noncontagious bacterial skin infection occurring in the dermal and subcutaneous layers
Typically presents with visible signs of inflammation including localized redness, warmth, tenderness and edema that progresssively worsens
Early detection and treatment are vital in reducing complications and systemic infection; untreated cellulitis can spead, causing potentially fatal septicemia
Crohn's DiseaseA specific form of inflammatory bowel disease in which the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract becomes abnormally inflamed Typical signs and symptoms range from mild to significantly deliberating to life-threatening
Symptoms may develop gradually or rapidly and typcially include abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, blood in the stool, GI tract ulcers, diminished appetite, and weight loss
Cushing's SyndromeResults from abnormally high levels of cortisol whihc may occur due to endogenous overproduction of cortisol or excessive exogenous use of corticosteroids
Typically present with hallmark physical signs including weight gain, purple striae, and a ruddy complexion
May be diagnosed by labratory analysis of cortisol levels in urine, saliva or bloood
Diabetes Mellitus (Type I)Insulin is functionally absent due to the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, where the insulin would normally be produced Starts in children ages 4 years or older, with the peak incidence of onset coinciding with early adolescence and puberty
Common symptoms include polyuria (large production of urine), polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyphagia (excessive hunger), nausea, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, and dehydration
Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2)Characterized by an inappropriate cellular response to insulin, preventing adequate absorption of blood glucose; excess blood glucose results in a persistent hyperglycemic state
May develop slowly prior to showing initial symptoms that can include polydipsia, polyuria, blurred vision, delayed healing, frequent infections, and acanthosis nigricans
Medical management is typically focused on lifestyle changes and pharmaceutical interventions through various oral or injectable pharmacological agents
Fibromyalgia SyndromeNonarticular rheumatic condition with pain caused by tender points within muscles, tendons and ligaments
Greater incidence in females (almost 75% of the cases) potentially affecting any age
Widespread history of pain that exists in all four quadrants of the body (above and below the waist), axial pain is present, and there is pain in at least 11 of 18 standardized "tender point" sites
Full Thickness BurnBurn causes immediate cellular and tissue death and subsequent vascular destruction
Eschar forms from necrotic cells and creates a dry and hard layer that requires debridement
Absent sensation and pain due to destruction of free nerve endings, however, there may be pain from adjacent areas that experience partial-thickness burns
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)Refers to the abnormal movement of partially digested solids, liquids, and gastric acid from the stomach into the esophagus
Most common complaints include heartburn, acid reflux, nausea after eating, and feeling as though food remains trapped in the esophagus
Typically diagnosed by reported symptoms and physical examination with additional testing for patients who do not respond to initial treatment
GoutConsidered a complex form of arthritis resulting from an abnormality high uric acid level (hyperuricemia) in the body
Greater prevalence among males with the great toe, knee, and ankle being the most commonly affected joints; may present as a chronic condition or a series of acute attacks
Identification of uric acid crystals in synovial fluid, collected via synovial biopsy, may be used to confirm the diagnosis
Graves' DiseaseMost common form of hyperactive thyroid disorder and is the result of an autoimmune attact on the thyroid gland causing overproduction of the hormone thyroxine (T4)
General complaints may include heat intolerance, increased appetite, increased sweating, frequent bowel movements, physical fatigue, weakness, tremor, weight loss, and insomnia
Typically responds well to pharmacological intervention that regulates T4 hormone production
Herpes Zoster (Shingles)Vericella-zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for outbreaks of "chickenpox" in children and herpes zoster "shingles" in adults
Highly contagious especially to patients with a compromised immune system
Symptoms typically begin with unilateral painful itching or burning sensation caused by the virus' initial attack on the nerve fibers
Human Immunodefeciency Virus (HIV)Primary risk factors for contracting HIV include unprotected sexual relations, intravenous drug use or mother to festus transmission Patients may actually be "symptom free" for one to two years post infection or may exhibit flu-like symptoms including rash and fever Leading cause of death for patients with the virus is kidney failure secondary to the extended drug therapies
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)Autoimmune disorder found in children less than 16 years of age that occurs when the immune cells mistakenly begin to attack the joints and organ causing local and systemic effects throughout the body
Girls have a higher incidence of JRA and are most commonly diagnosed as toddlers or in early adolescence
Clinical symptoms include persistent joint swelling, pain, and stiffness
Neuropathic UlcerOccurs most frequently in the diabetic population and is often referred to as a diabetic ulcer
At-risk areas include those that are routinely subjected to pressure during normal weight bearing, atypical stresses due to structural changes or improper fitting footwear
Will typically heal by secondary intention with appropriate wound healing interventions and the absence of complications (e.g., infection, severe arterial insufficiency)
OsteoporosisMetabolic bone disorder where the rate of bone resorption accelerates while the rate of bone formation slows down
Patients may complain of low thoracic or lumbar pain and experience compression fractures of the vertebrae
Bone mineral density test accounts for 70% of bone strength and is the easiest way to determine osteoporosis
Partial-thickness BurnSuperficial partial-thickness burn involves the epidermis and upper portion of the dermis; deep partial-thickness burn involves the epidermis, majority of the dermis, and structures within the dermis
Superficial partial-thickness burn is characterized by a red color that will blanch when touched; deep partial-thickness burn is characterized by red discoloration, however, it wil not blanch
Will typically heal without residual deficits in the absence of infection or other factors that may complicate or delay healing
Pressure UlcerUnrelieved pressure deprives the tissues of oxygen which causes ischemia, susequent cell death, and tissue necrosis
High-risk areas for pressure ulcers include the occiput, heels, greater trocanters, ischial tuberosities, sacrum, and epicondyles of the elbows
Impaired cognition, poor nutrition, altered sensation, incontinence, decreased lean body mass, and infection contribute to the development
Reflex Sympathetic DystrophyIncrease in sympathetic activity causes a release in nonrepinephrine in the periphery and subsequent vasoconstriction of blood vessels resulting in pain and an increase in sensitivity to peripheral stimulation
Affects all age groups, but is most likely found in individuals 35-60 years of age with females being three times more likely to be affected than males
Patients experience intense burning and chronic pain int he affected extremity that eventually spreads in a proximal direction
Rheumatoid ArthritisSystemic autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue that is characterized by chronic inflammation within synovial membranes, tendon sheaths, and articular cartilage
Incidence is three times greater in females than males and is diagnosed most frequently between 30-50 years of age
Blood work assists with the diagnosis through evaluation of the rheumatoid factor, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values
Systemic Lupus ErthematosusConnective tissue disorder caused by an autoimmune reaction in the body
Females are at greater risk than males with the most common age group ranging from 15-40 years of age
Clinical presentation includes a red butterfly rash across the cheeks and nose, a red rash over light exposed areas, arthralgias, alopecia, pleurisy, kidney involvement, seizures, and depression
Urinary Tract InfectionThe urinary tract is normally a sterile environment, but under certain conditions infectious organisms from internal to external sources can proliferate and cause infection
Characterized by a strong a persistent urge to urinate, as well as a burning sensation with urination
Urinalysis and urine culture are most commonly used to diagnose a urinary tract infection, however, patients who suffer recurrent urinary tract infections may require more invasive diagnostic testing
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