Pathology of the urinary system

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-19 02:09

Section 1

Question Answer
nephrologistspecializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys
urologistspecializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males
nephropathyany disease of the kidney; both degenerative and inflammatory conditions
diabetic nephropathykidney disease resulting from late-stage diabetes mellitus
renal failure;the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions
uremia;a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea and other waste products normally secreted in the urine are retained in the blood
acute renal failuresudden onset; caused by kidneys not receiving enough blood to filter due to dehydration; sudden drop in blood volume or blood pressure because of injury, burns, or severe infection
chronic kidney diseasecauses progressive loss of renal function over months or years
end-stage renal diseasethe final stage of chronic kidney disease;fatal unless the functions of the failed kidneys are successfully replaced by dialysis or a successful kidney transplant

Section 2

Question Answer
nephrotic syndromeaka nephrosis; a group of conditions in which excessive amounts of protein are lost through the urine; this results in abnormally low levels of protein in the blood
edemathe excessive fluid accumulation in body tissues
hyperproteinuriathe presence of a anormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemiathe presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood
hydronephrosisthe dilation(swelling) of one or both kidneys
nephritisinflammation of the kidney or kidneys
glomerulonephritisa type of nephritis caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine
nephroptosisaka floating kidney; the prolapse or dropping down of a kidney into the pelvic area when the patient stands
nephropyosisaka pyonehprosis;suppuration of the kidney
suppurationformation or discharge of pus
polycystic kidney diseasea genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys;the cycts reduce kidney function
renal colicacute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a nephrolith(kidney stone)
colicspams of pain in the abdomen
Wilms tumorrare type of malignant of tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children

Section 3

Question Answer
stoneaka calculus; an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body;form when waste products in the urine separate and crystallize
nephrolithiasisthe presence of stones in the kidney
nephrolithaka kidney stone or renal calculus;found in the kidney
ureterolithstone located anywhere along the ureter
cystolithstone located within the urinary bladder
hydroureterdistention (swelling) of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked
ureterectasisdistention (enlargement) of a ureter
ureterorrhagiathe discharge of blood from the ureter
cystalgiaaka cystodynia; pain in the bladder
cystoceleaka prolapsed bladder; a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall
interstitial cystitischronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder
vesicovaginal fistulaan abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows constant involuntary flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

Section 4

Question Answer
neurogenic bladdera urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination
benign prostatic hyperplasiaaka enlarged prostate; it makes urination difficult and causes other urinary tract problems for men.
prostatisma disorder relulting from the compression of obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hyperplasia; it can produce diffilulties with urination and with urinary retention.
prostate cancerone of the most common among men; it can grow slowly with no symptoms, or can grow aggressively and spread throughout the body
prostatitisa group of disorders characterized by the inflammation of the prostate gland
chronic non bacterial prostatitisprostatitis with no single known cause
bacterial prostatitisinfection that usually results from bacteria transported in the urine
urethrorrhagiableeding from the urethra
urethrorrheaabnormal discharge from the urethra
urethrostenosisaka urethral stricture; narrowing of the urethra;almost exclusively in men
epispadiascongenital abnormality of the urethral opening in which the opening in the male is located on the upper surface of the penis; in the female the opening is in the region of the clitoris
hypospadiascongenital abnormality of the urethral opening in which the opening in the male is on the ventral side of the penis; in the female the urethra opens into the vagina

Section 5

Question Answer
urinary tract infectionan infection that usually begins in the bladder but can affect all parts of the urinary system
cystitisinflammation of the bladder
pyelitisinflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritisinflammation of both the renal pelvis and the kidney
urethritisinflammation of the urethra
anuriathe absence of urine formation by the kidneys
diuresisincreased output urine
dysuriadifficult or painful urination
enuresisinvoluntary discharge of urine
nocturnal enuresisaka bedwetting; involuntary discharge of urine at night
nocturiafrequent and excessive urination during the night
oliguriascanty urination
polyuriaexcessive urination
urinary hesitancydifficulty in starting a urinary stream
urinary retentionaka ischuria;inability of completely empty the bladder when attempting to urinate

Section 6

Question Answer
incontinencethe inability to control the excretion of urine, feces or both
urinary incontinencethe inability to control the voiding of urine
overflow incontinencecontinuous leaking from the bladder because it is full or because it does not empty completely
stress incontinencethe inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress
overactive bladderaka urge incontinence; occurs when the muscles of the bladder contract involuntarily even though the bladder is not actually full enough to indicate the need to urinate