Pathology of the respiratory system

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-05 14:15

Section 1

Question Answer
pulmonologistspecializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the respiratory system
thoracic surgeon performs operations on the organs inside the thorax or chest
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasea group of lung diseases in which the bronchial airflow is obstructed
chronic bronchitisa disease in which the airways have become inflamed due to recurrent exposure to an inhaled irritant;an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells results in excessive mucus production and thickening of the walls of the air passages
emphysemaa progressive, long-term loss of lung function;characterized by a decrease in the number of alveoli, enlargement of the remaining alveoli, and the progressive destruction of the walls of these remaining alveoli
asthmaa chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchial tubes, often triggered by an allergic reaction; characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing and wheezing
airway inflammationthe swelling and clogging of the bronchial tubes with mucus
bronchospasma contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, tightening and squeezing the airway shut

Section 2

Question Answer
upper respiratory infectionsaka common cold
allergic rhinitisaka allergy;allergic reaction to airborne allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus
croupacute respiratory infection in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness and swelling around the vocal cords
stridora harsh, high-pitched sound caused by a blockage present when breathing in
diphtheriaan acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper tract that can produce toxins that damage the heart muscle and peripheral nerves
epistaxisaka nose-bleed
influenzaaka flu, an acute highly contafious viral infection characterized by respiratory inflammation, fever, chills and muscle pain
pertussisaka whooping cough; a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract characterized by recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough followed by breathlessness and noisy inspiration
rhinorrheaaka runny nose
sinusitisinflammation of the sinuses

Section 3

Question Answer
pharyngitisaka sore throat;inflammation of the pahrynx
laryngospasmsudden, spasmodic closure of the larynx
aphoniathe loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
dysphoniadifficulty in speaking
laryngitisinflammation of the larynx
tracheorrhagiableeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea
bronchiectasisthe permanent dilation of the bronchi, caused by chronic infection and inflammation
bronchorrheaexcessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
pleurisyinflammation of the pleura; causes pleuradynia
pleurodyniaa sharp pain that occurs when the inflamed membranes rub against each other with each inhalation
pleural effusionthe excess accumulation of fluid in the pleural space;this causes a feeling of breathlessness because it prevents the lung from fully expanding
pyothoraxthe presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane
empyemarefers to a collection of pus in a body cavity
hemothoraxa collection of blood in the pleural cavity
pneumothoraxthe accumulation of air in the pleural space resultin in a pressure imbalance that causes the to fully or partially collapse

Section 4

Question Answer
acute respiratory distress syndromea lung condition usually caused by trauma, pneumonia, smoke or fumes, inhaled vomit or sepsis
atelectasisaka collapsed lung
pulmonary edemaan accumulation of fluid in lung tissues, especially in the alveoli
pulmonary embolismthe sudden blockage of a pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by and embolus that has formed in the leg or pelvic region
pheumorrhagiableeding from the lungs
tuberculosisand infectious disease that usually affects the lungs;it can also affect other body parts
pneumoniaa serious inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli and air passages fill with pus and other fluids
bronchopneumonia a localized from of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles
lobar pneumoniaaffects larger areas of the lungs, often including one or more lobes of a lung

Section 5

Question Answer
aspiration pneumoniacan occur when a foreign substance is inhaled into the lungs
bacterial pneumoniamost commonly caused by streptocossus pneunoniae; the only form that can be prevented through vaccination
community-acquired pneumoniatype of pneumonia that results from contagious infection outside of a hospital or clinic
hospital-acquired pneumoniatype of pneunomia contracted during a stay in the hospital when a patient's defenses are impaired
walking pneumoniaa milder but longer-lasting form of the disease caused by the bacteria mycoplasma pneunomiae
pneumocystis pneumoniaan opportunistic infection caused by a yeast-like fungus
viral pneumoniaaccounts for approximately 1/3 of all pneumonias
interstitial lung diseasea group of almost 200 disorders that cause inflammation and scarring of the alveoli and their supporting structures
pulmonary fibrosisthe progressive formation of scar tissue in the lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing

Section 6

Question Answer
pneumoconiosisfibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs after prolonged environmental or occupational contact
anthracosisaka black lung disease;caused by coal dust in the lungs
asbestosiscaused by asbestos particles in the lungs
silicosiscaused by inhaling silica dust in the lungs
cystic fibrosisa life-threatening genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
lung cancerthe leading cause of cancer death in the US;a condition in which cancer cells from in the tissues of the lungs
breathing disordersabnormal changes in the rate or depth of breathing
eupneaeasy or normal breathing; the baseline fro judging some breathing disorders
apneathe temporary absence of spontaneous respiration; common in premature infants
bradypneaabnormally slow rate of respiration, usually less than 10 breaths per minute
Cheyne-Stokes respirationan irregular pattern of breathing characterized by alternating rapid or shallow respiration followed by slower respiration or apnea
tachypneaabnormally rapid rate of respiration usually more than 20 breaths per minute
dyspneaaka shortness of breath;difficult or labored breathing
hyperpneabreathing that is deeper and more rapid that normal or at rest
hypopneashallow or slow respiration
hyperventilationrapid and deep respiration, usually associated with anxiety

Section 7

Question Answer
sleep apneapotentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep for long-enough period to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels
snoringnoisy breathing caused by vibration of the soft palate
expectorationthe act of coughing up and spitting out saliva, mucus or other body fluid
hemoptysiscoughing up blood or blood-stained sputum as the result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
airway obstructionaka choking;occurs when food or a foreign object partially or completely blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs
anoxiathe absence of oxygen from the body's tissues and organs even though there is an adequate flow of blood
hypoxiathe condition of having deficient oxygen levels in the body's tissues or organs; less sever that anoxia
asphyxiathe loss of consciousness that occurs when the body cannot get the oxygen it needs to function
cyanosisa bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood
hypercapniathe abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemiathe condition of having low oxygen levels in the blood, usually due to respiratory disorders or heart conditions
respiratory failurea condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low or the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high
sudden infant death syndromethe sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy infant between the ages of 2 and 6 monthe

Section 8

Question Answer
bronchoscopythe visual examination of the bronchi
respiratory ratethe count of the number of breaths per minute
respiratory soundsprovide information about the condition of the lungs and pleura
bronchoscopea flexible, fiber-optic device that is passed through the nose or mouth and down the airways
chest x-raytool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung cancer, pheumothorax, pleural effucion, tb and emphysema
laryngoscopythe visual examination of the larynx and vocal chords using a flexible or rigid laryngoscope inserted through the mouth
peak flow meterinexpensive hand-held device used to let patients with measure air flowing out of the lungs
polysomnographyaka sleep study; measures physiological activity during sleep and is often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea
pulmonary function testsa group of tests that measure volume and flow of air by using a spirometer
spirometera recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled, and the length of time required for each breath
pulse oximeterexternal monitor placed on the patient's fingertip or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood
phlegma thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages
suptumphlegm ejected through mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes
tuberculin skin testinga screening test for tb in which the skin of the arm is infected with a harmless antigen extracted from tb bacteria
Mantoux PPD skin testconsidered more accurate test for tb; a very small amount of PPD tuberculin is injected just under the top layer of the skin on the forearm

Section 9