Pathology of the nervous system, II

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-25 17:47

Section 1

Question Answer
hemorrhagic stroke AKA bleedoccurs when a A BLOOD VESSEL IN THE BRAIN LEAKS or when an ANEURYSM WITHIN THE BRAIN RUPTURES often fatal; causes damage in the area of the brain where the leak occurs
aneurysma localized, weak, balloon-like enlargement of an artery wall
arteriovenous malformationone of the causes of hemorrhagic strokes; an ABNORMAL CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ARTERIES AND VEINS IN THE BRAIN; it is usually congenital and can rupture suddenly at any age
insomniathe prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep; is usually a symptom of another problem such as depression, pain, or excessive caffiene
narcolepsya sleep disorder consisting of sudden and uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day
sleep deprivationa sufficient lack of restorative sleep over a cumulative period so as to cause physical or psychiatric symptoms and affect routine performance or tasks
somnambulism AKA sleepwalking or noctambulismthe condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening

Section 2

Question Answer
myelitisan inflammation of the spinal cord or bone marrow
myelosisa tumor of the spinal cord
poliomyelitis AKA polioa highly contagious viral infection of the brainstem and spinal cord that sometimes leads to paralysis
post-polio symdromethe recurrence later in life of some polio symptoms in individuals who have had childhood poliomyelitis and have recovered from it
radiculitis AKA pinched nervean INFLAMMATION of the ROOT OF A SPINAL NERVE that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb
cervical radiculopathynerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
lumbar radiculopathynerve pain in the LOWER BACK caused by muscle spasms or by NERVE ROOT IRRITATION from the compression of vertebral disks such as a herniated disk
multiple sclerosisa progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath; this SCARS the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves and disrupts the transmission of nerve impulses; the damage leaves the patient with varying degrees of pain plus physical cognitive problems
demyelinationthe loss of patches of the protective myelin sheath
exacerbations AKA flaresa characteristic of multiple sclerosis;EPISODES OF WORSENING SYMPTOMS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis AKA Lou Gehrig's disease;ALSa rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for CONTROLLING VOLUNTARY MUSCLES; patients become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed and die
Bell's palsythe TEMPORARY PARALYSIS of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis ONLY OF THE AFFECTED SIDE OF THE FACE;paralysis symptoms can include the inability to close the eye, pain, tearing, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound in the affected, and impairment of taste
Guillain-Barre syndrom AKA infectious polyneuritisan INFLAMMATION of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by RAPIDLY WORSENING MUSCLE WEAKNESS that can lead to temporary paralysis; it is an autoimmune reaction that can occur after certain viral infections or an immunization
neuritisan inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain, and sometimes loss of function
sciaticainflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, and tingling along the course of the affected sciatic nerve through the the thigh, leg and foot
trigeminal neuralgiainflammation of the fifth cranial nerve characterized by SEVERE, LIGHTNING-LIKE PAIN; these attacks affect only one side of the face

Section 3

Question Answer
cerebral palsya condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects the cerebrum;usually caused by an injury that occurs during pregnancy, birth, or soon after birth
spasticitya condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted
palsyparalysis of a body part that is often accompanied by loss of feeling and uncontrolled body movements, such as shaking
epilepsy AKA seizure disordera chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severity
seizurea sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time
tonic-clonic seizure AKA grand mal seizureinvolves the entire body; in the tonic phase the body becomes rigid; in the clonic phase there is uncontrolled jerking
absence seizure AKA petit mal seizurea brief disturbance in brain function in which there is a loss of awareness often described as a staring episode
causalgiapersistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
hyperesthesiaa condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
paresthesiaa burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs or feet;can also occur in other parts of the body.sensations may constitute the first symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or may be a drug side effect
peripheral neuropathya disorder of the peripheral nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord; produces pain, the loss of sensation and the inability to control muscles, particularly in the arms and legs
neuropathyany disease or damage to a nerve
mononeuropathydamage to a singular peripheral nerve, as in carpal tunnel syndrome
polyneuropathywhen multiple peripheral nerves are damaged
restless leg syndromeneurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable feelings in the legs, producing a strong urge to move them

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