Pathology of the digestive system

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-19 13:52

Section 1

Question Answer
Bariatricsbranch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and related diseases
dentistspecializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues or the oral cavity
gastroenterologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines
oral or maxillofacial surgeonspecializes in surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases and repair injuries
orthodontistdental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures
periodontistdental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth
proctologistspecializes in disorders of the colon, rectum and anus

Section 2

Question Answer
aphthous ulcersaka canker or mouth ulcers; gray-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth
ulceropen lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges
cheilosisdisorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
herpes labialisaka cold sore or fever blister; blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1
leukiplakiaabnormal, white precancerous lesion that develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek
stomatitisinflammation of the mucosa of the mouth
stomatomycosisany disease of the mouth due to a fungus
oral thrushtype of stomatomycosis that develops when the fungus "Candida albicans" grows out of control; creamy white lesions on the tongue of inner cheeks
trismusany restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery or radiation associated with the treatment of mouth cancer
xerostomiaaka dry mouth;lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands
cleft lipaka harelip; birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of the portion of the lip to close during prenatal developement
cleft palatefailure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus; it can involve the upper lip, hard palate and or soft palate

Section 3

Question Answer
bruxisminvoluntary grinding or clenching of teeth that usually occurs during and is associated with tension or stress; it wears away tooth structure,damages periodontal tissues and injures the TMJdental caries
dental cariesaka tooth decay, cavities;infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth
dental plaqueforms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth; consists of bacteria and bacterial by-products
edentulouswithout teeth
halitosisaka bad breath;can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders
malocclusionany deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth
periodontal diseaseaka periodontitis;inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth
dental calculusaka tartar;dental plaque that has calcified on the teeth
calculusused to describe hard deposits in other parts of the body
gingivitisthe earliest state of periodontal disease; the inflammation affects only the gums
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitisaka trench mouth;caused by abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth

Section 4

Question Answer
dysphagiadifficulty in swallowing
gastroesophageal reflux diseaseaka GERD; upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
refluxbackward or return flow
Barrett's esophagusoccurs when the cells in the epithelial tissue of the esophagus are damaged by chronic acid exposure
pyrosisaka heartburn;burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus
esophageal varicesenlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
hiatal herniaanatomical abnormality in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm
herniathe protrusion of a part or structure through the tissues that normally contain it
gastroenteritisinflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines
gastrorrheaexcessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach
peptic ulcerssores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system;caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or by medications
gastric ulcerspeptic ulcers in the stomach
duodenal ulcerspeptic ulcers in the upper part of the small intestine
perforating ulcera complication of a peptic ulcer in which the ulcer erodes through the entire thickness of the organ wall

Section 5

Question Answer
anorexiathe loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease
anorexia nervosaeating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance;leads to intense fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a normal body weight
bulimia nervosaan eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives,etc
bulimiacontinuous, excessive hunger
cachexiacondition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass due to disease
picaabnormal craving or appetite for non-food substances, such as dirt, paint or clay, that lasts for at least for one month
dyhydrationcondition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance
malnutritionlack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb and distribute these nurtients
malabsorptioncondition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it
obesityan excessive accumulation of fat in the body
obeseusually refers to individuals who are more that 20%-30% over the established weight standards
morbid obesityaka severe obesity;condition of weighing two times or more than the ideal body weight or having a body mass index value greater than 40
morbida diseased state
body mass indexnumber that shows body weight adjusted for height
comorbiditythe presence of more that one disease or health condition in an individual at a given time

Section 6

Question Answer
aerophagiaexcessively swallowing air while eating or drinking;common cause of gas in the stomach
dyspepsiaaka indigestion; pain or discomfort in digestion
emesisaka vomiting;reflex ejection of the stomach contents outward through the mouth
eructationbelching or raising gas orally from the stomach
hematemesisvomiting blood
hyperemesisextreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
nauseathe urge to vomit
regurgitationthe return of swallowed food to the mouth

Section 7