Pathology Final

suzy222's version from 2016-12-06 03:29

Module 7

Question Answer
Aneurysm Abnormal pouching of artery, vein, or heart formed as result of weakening in wall
ArrhythmiaAbnormal heart rhythm
AtherosclerosisDisease of large and medium sized arteries (plaque build up)
DysrhythmiaDisturbance in electrical rhythm of heart
Fatty StreakPrecursor lesion
InfarctionLocalized area of ischemic necrosis produced by blockage of arterial supply
Ischemic Heart DiseaseDecreased blood flow resulting in inadequate supply of oxygen to heart muscles
Myocardial InfarctionOccurring within cardiac muscle and commonly referred to as heart attack.
OcclusionBeing closed
Sub endocardialInvolvement of only inner half of heart wall
TamponadeAccumulation of fluid on external surface of heart, but within pericardium causing compression on the heart.
ThrombosisFormation of mass
TransmuralInvolvement of full thickness of heart wall

Module 8


Question Answer
AbscessLocalized collection of pus
AcinusBasic unit where gas exchange occurs (respiratory bronchioles and alveoli)
AlveolarThin-walled sac where gas exchange occurs across alveolar capillary membrane
COPDChronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Increased airflow resistance in airways resulting in decreased expiratory volume.
Cor PulmonaleOverload of right ventricle due to hypertension
PleuraMembrane that covers the lungs and lines the wall of the pleural cavity
PneumoniaInflammation of lung due to secondary infection
Respiratory failureInability to maintain normal oxygen saturation of blood to remove CO2 from blood entering lungs.

Module 9


Question Answer
Acute tubular necrosisNecrosis and death of tubular cell due to lack of oxygen or exposure to toxins.
CystAbnormal sac containing gas or fluid
CystectomyExcision of cyst
CystoscopyInspection of interior of bladder
GlomerulonphritisInflammation of glomeruli caused by immune mediated response to glomerular basement membrane
GlomerulopathyRenal disease characterized by changes in the glomeruli
HematuriaPresence of red blood cells in urine
HydronephrosisDilation of renal pelvis as a result of chronic obstruction

Module 10


Question Answer
ColposcopyTechnique for examining cervix with instrument that magnifies cells of cervix
CytologyMicroscopic study of cells
DysmenhorreaPainful menstruation
DysplasiaAlteration of size, shape, and orientation of cell
CryptorchidismUndescended testes
EctopicPregnancy occurring out of place
EndometriosisBenign endometrial glands and stroma outside of uterus
HydrosalpinxAccumulation of fluid in fallopian tubes
HyperplasiaIncrease in number of cells
HPVHuman papillomavirus is a DNA containing virus that is strongly linked to genital warts
KoilocytesSquamous cell and often binucleated
LeiomyomaBenign neoplasm derived from smooth muscle.
MenarcheEstablishment or beginning of menstrual function
MenorrhagiaExcessive menstrual bleeding
MetaplasiaChange from one adult type to another
Pap smearScraped cells from cervix
Pelvic inflammatory diseaseInfection of pelvic organs
Prostate specific antigenProtein produced by epithelial cells of prostate gland
PyosalpinxDistention of fallopian tubes with pus
SalpingitisInflammation of fallopian tube
TeratomaNeoplasm composed of tissue from all three germ layers.

Module 11


Question Answer
AdhesionFibrous scar tissue that binds together normally seperate structures
AppendicitisAcute inflammation of appendix which may lead to perforation
Crohns diseaseInflammatory disease that can affect any portion of digestive tract.
DiverticulumPouch branching from hollow organ or structure such as intestine.
DysphagiaDifficulty swallowing
FistulaAbnormal duct connecting abscess, cavity, or hollow organ to other body surface
HematemesisVomiting blood
HematocheziaRed blood in stool.
HerniaProtrusion of organ through wall
IntussusceptionSegment of small bowel becomes telescoped into distal bowel
MelenaBlack blood in stool, typically from stomach
Occult bleedingBlood in stool not visible to eye
Peptic ulcerBreak in lining produced by action of gastric secretions. Most in stomach and duodenum.
PerforationAbnormal opening of hollow organ
PeritonitisInflammation of peritoneum, membrane of lining of walls of abdominal and pelvic cavities.
PolypGeneral term used to describe any mass of tissue that projects outwards from smooth surface
VolvulusTwisting of intestine causing an obstruction or impairing blood supply

Module 12


Question Answer
AmyloidExtracellular protein substance
AphasiaLoss of language function
Apolioproprotein EA protein involved in lipid transport in blood and brain.
AstrocyteClass of glial cells that provide mechanical support and maintain ionic composition in CNS
AtaxiaIncoordination of smooth percision movements
ChromatolysisSwelling and disintegration of cytoplasmic organelles in response to axonal injury
ContusionA bruise
CoupBlow or injury at site of impact
Diffuse axonal injuryMassive disruption of axonal integrity within white matter of brain
EncephalitisInflammation of brain
EpiduralLocated on or over the dura mater
GliaCells that surround and support the neurons in CNS
GyrusRounded folds of cerebral tissue which comprise the surface of cerebral hemispheres
HematomaLocalized mass of blood
HemianopsiaLoss of right or left visual field
HemiplegiaParalysis of one side of body due to lesions on opposite side of brain
MeningesThree connective tissue membranes covering brain and spinal cord (dura, arachnoid, and pia)
MeningitisInflammation of meninges
MicrogliaType of glial cell of CNS that can act as phagocyte and involved in inflammatory response
Neurofibrillary tanglesCollection of abnormal cytoskeleton elements
NeuronophagiaPhagocytosis of dead neurons
OligodendrogliaCell of CNS that forms myelin sheath around nerve fibers
ParaparesisSlight paralysis of legs (commonly due to lesions in spinal cord)
ParasthesiaAbnormal sensation which may be felt as burning and tingling
ParaplegiaParalysis of legs
ParesisWeakness resulting from disease of any element in motor pathway
PNSPart of nervous system that is external to brain and spinal cord from nerve roots to peripheral terminations
PrionsInfectious agents which consist of proteins and cause infections by inducing changes in normal host proteins
Schwann cellCell of PNS that wraps around axon to form myelin sheath in improve nerve conductance
SubarachnoidSpace between arachnoid and pia layers
SubduralSpace between dura and arachnoid
SulcusGrooves located on surface of brain which divide adjacent gyri
Wernicke's encephlopathyCondition observed in chronic alcoholics due to thiamine deficiency (characterized by confusion)

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