Pathology Class #2

taylormaloney's version from 2017-01-12 21:54

Section 1

Question Answer
What two cycles make up the female reproductive system?Ovarian + Menstrual Cycles.
What hormone stimulates the production of FSH + LH?GnRH
What is the function of FSH hormone?Stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles and the production of estrogens and inhibin.
What is the function of LH?Stimulates ovulation and the secretions of progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, and inhibin by the corpus luteum. (By keeping the corpus luteum alive)
What is the function of Estrogens?Promotes development + maintenance of female reproductive structures, feminine secondary sex characteristics and breast. Increases protein anabolism, decreases blood cholesterol, and helps to inhibit release of GnRH, FSH, and LH.
What is the function of Progesterone?Works with estrogens to prepare endometrium for implantation. Prepares mammary glands to secrete milk, inhibits secretion of GnRH and LH.
What is the function of Relaxin?Inhibits contractions of uterine smooth muscle. During labor it increases the flexibility of pubic symphysis and dilates uterine cervix.
What is the function of Inhibin?Inhibits release of FSH and also LH (To a lesser degree).

Section 2

Question Answer
At what point in the reproductive cycle is FSH at it's highest level?Approximately 12-13 days into the cycle.
At what point is the level of estrogens the highest?Approx Day 12
At what point is LH at it's highest levels?Approx Day 14
At what point is Progesterone at it's highest level?Approx Day 22

Section 3

Question Answer
Define PerimenopauseThe point in time when the levels of reproductive hormones in women begin to decline.
MC Symptoms of PerimenopauseChanges in menstrual cycle, sleep disturbances, increased body temperature, anxiety/depression/mood swings, fatigue, difficulty with concentration.
Are the range of symptoms standard in most women?No, they vary greatly from one woman to the next.
How long does this phase last?Up to 10 years. Some may experience symptoms more than ten years before menopause.
What is the average length of time where symptoms gradually escalate?Most women report 3-4 years.

Section 4

Question Answer
Define MenopauseThe complete cessation of ovarian function and menses for 12 consecutive months.
When is the average age of onset?45-50 years old.
This particular stage of life takes place over a period of..Several years.
What are the characteristics of Menopause?Estrogen + Progesterone levels decrease along with number of remaining ovarian follicles. Menstruation become irregular and eventually stops.
Any bleeding after menopause may be a sign of..Cancer or Polyps.
Who is likely to experience surgical menopause?Premenopausal women who have had a hysterectomy.
What is Premature Menopause?Cessation of menstruation before the age of 40, premature ovarian failure.
What are the common Signs and Symptoms of Menopause?Hot flashes/flushing, night sweats, anxiety/panic attacks/mood changes, fatigue, urinary incontinence, insomnia/sleep disturbances, headaches, decreased libido, heart palpitations, short term memory loss, mm loss, weight gain, vulvar/vaginal atrophy, predisposition to diseases, and changes in the vaginal pH.

Section 5

Question Answer
Define HysterectomySurgical removal of the uterus.
What are the indications for hysterectomy?Endometriosis, Ovarian Cysts, Excessive Bleeding, Cancer of cervix/uterus/ovaries.
What are the two primary types of hysterectomy?Complete- removal of cervix. Radical- removal of uterus, tubes, ovaries, part of vagina, pelvic lymph nodes, and supporting ligaments.
Are hysterectomies common?They are the most common gynecological operation.

Section 6

Question Answer
Define HRTHormone Replacement Therapy- the introduction of hormones that the body can not or does not produce naturally.
Is HRT a long term or short term solution?Short term.
What would be the indications for HRT?Hot flashes/night sweats, vaginal dryness, insomnia/anxiety, prevention of osteoporosis, maintenance of skin elasticity and thickness, Decreasing the risk of colon cancer + stroke, improvement of blood pressure, prevention/delayed onset of alzheimers, improvement in pain tolerance, and improvement in serotonin levels.
HRT's complications and increased risk of..Myocardial Infarction in 1st year, Stroke in 1st year, endometrial cancer, breast cancer w/ prolonged use, gallstones, bloodclots, increased breast density causing difficulty in mammograms,
What are the side effects associated with HRT?Mood swings, vaginal bleeding, edema, weight gain, constipation, headaches, depression.
What are the potential CI's/Precautions?History of blood clots, pancreatic or liver disease, hormone sensitivity in breasts, migraine headaches -especially those that are worse during menses, Hypertension, Uterine Fibroids, Endometriosis, History of Stroke or TIA's, Any benign breast disease, Breast or Endometrial Cancers.