Pathology Class 2.5

taylormaloney's version from 2017-01-13 00:17

Section 1

Question Answer
What makes up a zygote?Sperm + an Oocyte
How long does it take for the sperm too fertilize the oocyte?Approximately 24hrs
How long does an oocyte survive?24 hours
How long can a sperm cell survive inside the female reproductive system?5-6 days approx
What makes up the process of 'Fertilization'?The acrosome reaction- release of acrosome enzymes (Hyaluronidase), which must be completed before the sperm can fuse with the secondary oocyte.
What action of the sperm helps in the penetration of the Corona Radiata of the oocyte?Flagella- the movement of the sperm cell.
How long does it take for the oocyte to extrude a polar body with it's excess chromosomes?11 hours.
What is the marker of creation for a zygote that ends fertilization process.The fusion of the oocyte and sperm nuclei.
What is cleavage in relation to the zygote?Cleavage is the splitting of the zygote cells, dividing into two cells.
What is the name of the two cells created by the cleavage of a zygote?Blastomeres.
The first division begins a series of divisions occurring approximately..Division approx every 20 hours.
Where is a common site of implantation?Posterior wall of uterus.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is hCG?Human chorionic gonadotropin
What does hCG do?From day 8 to four months, it keeps the corpus luteum active.
What secretes hCG?The chorion
What is the function of the corpus luteum?Production of progesterone and estrogen to maintain lining of uterus.
hCG mimics what other hormone?LH
Why is the progesterone and estrogens so critical at this stage of development?It will help keep the embryo attached to the lining of the uterus.

Section 3

Question Answer
By what point in development is the corpus luteum no longer important?Placenta produces enough progesterone and estrogens that the corpus luteum is nolonger req'd.
What three main hormones are released via the placenta?Relaxin, hCS, and CRH

Section 4

Question Answer
What could be the cause of pathological disruption or alteration of pregnancy?Abnormal fertilization, pathology of implantation, pathology of placentation, maternofetal interaction, or pathology of fertilization.
What are potential ovum related factors?Immature ovum, inferior ova quality in older females. Even normal ova of young healthy women only fertilize in 20% of cases.
What are the potential sperm related factors?Azoospermia- no living sperm produced. Oligospermia- not enough sperm produced. Immobile Spermatozoa.
What percent of infertility is caused by fallopian tube pathology?30%
Define PIDPelvic inflammatory diseases. Tube occluded or deformed by chronic inflammation/adhesions, scar tissue.
In the case of PID how might someone have a child?In vitro fertilization, zygote transferred back into the uterus)
What are the potential systemic factors in pregnancy pathology?Immune mechanisms, DM, Psychological Problems etc.

Section 5

Question Answer
What could cause pathology of implantation?An hormonally unprepared uterus. Endometriosis or Adhesions- preventing proper implantation. Ectopic Pregnancy- The fetus implants somewhere other than the uterus.(Usually in fallopian tubes 95%)
What is another name for ectopic pregnancy?Extrauterine pregnancy.
What are the potential locations of implantation outside of the uterus?Ovary, Fallopian Tubes, Abdominal Cavity.
What are the potential risk factors of ectopic pregnancy?Pelvic inflammatory diseases, induced abortion, STI, UTI.
What could an ectopic pregnancy be related to?Delayed transport of egg, decreased fallopian tube motility, distorted anatomy.
What are the clinical manifestations of ectopic pregnancy?Pelvic pain, cramps, irregular bleeding, amenorrhea, fainting.
How is an ectopic pregnancy diagnosed?Pelvic mass, clinical picture, blood tests, urine tests, ultrasound.
How is ectopic pregnancy treated?Surgery.

Section 6

Question Answer
What is another term for miscarriage?Spontaneous Abortion
What is a miscarriage?Non-induced embryonic or fetal death- or passage of products of conception before the 20th week of pregnancy.
After 20 weeks what would a miscarriage commonly be referred to?A stillbirth.
What is a complete abortion?The fetus and placenta are expulsed. Woman resumes normal menstruation.
What is an incomplete abortion?Cervical dilation with the expulsion of some fetal parts and placenta.
What is a missed abortion?Dead fetus, remains in utero usually for several weeks.
What is a threatened abortion?Cervical bleeding but cervix does not dilate. Pregnancy may continue.
What are the common symptoms of a miscarriage?Crampy pelvic pain, bleeding, eventual expulsion of tissue.
What are the potential complications of the products of conception remaining in utero after miscarriage?Infection- fever, pain, sepsis.
What is the definition of abortion?Ending of a pregnancy by the removal or forcing out from the womb, a fetus or embryo which cannot survive on it's own.

Section 7

Question Answer
What is a therapeutic (elective) abortion?The intentional termination of a pregnancy.
What is the purpose of an elective abortion?Pregnancy that may endanger life or health, prenatal testing that show fetus may be born with severe abnormalities.
Abortions are safest at what point of development?Within first 6-10 weeks after last menstruation.
Abortions performed between 13-24 weeks are ...More likely to experience complications.
Abortions after 24 weeks are..Extremely rare and are usually limited to cases of extreme risk to mother.
What are the three types of induced abortions?Vacuum Aspiration, Infusion of Saline solution, Surgical evacuation.
What is RU 486?A non-surgical abortion, antiprogestin drug that causes uterine lining to shed and menstruation occurs.
How long after conception could RU 486 be used?Up to 5 weeks after.

Section 8

Question Answer
What are the types of placental anomalies?Abnormalities in shape, side, placental cord or amniotic fluid.
How much do these anomalies effect the end result of pregnancy?Most do not have any direct consequences.
What is Placenta Accreta?Serious condition that occurs when BVs and other parts of placenta grow too deeply into uterine wall.
What might this cause at the time of birth?The placenta does not shed off spontaneously from uterus- may cause extensive bleeding.
How would this condition be treated?Manual removal of placenta from uterus after delivery.
What is Placenta Previa?Implantation of placenta on or near cervix in lower pt of uterus.
What might this cause?May block the opening of the cervix.
How common is this condition?Approx 1 in 200 deliveries.
Who is most likely to experience this complication?Women who have had more than one pregnancy or who have had structural abnormalities of uterus.
What might placenta previa cause late in pregnancy?`Painless bleeding in vagina that may become heavy and threaten the lives of mother and embryo.
How can it be diagnosed?Ultrasonography
What may this condition be mistaken for?A placenta that has been detached prematurely.
What might this condition mean for the process of delivery?A Cesarian section may be req'd.

Section 9

Question Answer
What is abruptio placentae?Premature detachment of normally positioned placenta.
What causes it?Idiopathic.
What is the biggest risk factor?Eclampsia
What demographic of women is most likely to experience this?Women with high blood pressure, and or use cocaine.
Severity of symptoms is dependent on what factor?The amount of blood lost/ severity of detachment.
What is the biggest complication for the woman?Shock and Infection/
How might this be treated?Bed rest, possible cesarian section if necessary.

Section 10

Question Answer
What is preeclampsia?A triad of symptoms including HT, edema, and proteinuria.
What percent of pregnancies are affected by preeclampsia?3-5 %
When do symptoms usually appear? After 34th week.
What is Eclampsia?The symptoms of preeclampsia with the addition of seizures.
What is the prognosis?If detected early prognosis is good. Very common. 6 % of pregnancies.
What is the name for the two above pathologies?Toxemia of Pregnancy.
Who is most likely to be affected?Women during first pregnancy.
How is it treated?Hypertension medication, bed rest, cesarian section.
What complication to the Hypertension?HELLP syndrome- hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets.

Section 11

Question Answer
What is Gestational Diabetes?Diabetes developed during pregnancy. Causes high blood sugar that can affect pregnancy and baby's health.
How long does it last? Usually only until end of pregnancy,
What type of symptoms? Most often does not cause noticeable signs.
What are the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes?Age greater than 25, family/personal health history, excess weight, Non-caucasians.
What complications might affect the baby?Excessive birth weight, early birth and respiratory distress, low blood sugar that may cause seizures, Type 2 Diabetes later in life.
What complications might affect the mother?High BP, preeclampsia, future diabetes in pregnancy, possible type 2 diabetes later in life.

Section 12

Question Answer
What is GTD?Gestational Trophoblastic Disease- abnormalities of placentation that lead to tumor like changes in placenta.
What is Hydatidiform mole? Benign form of GTD
What is complete mole?Fetus cannot be identified in amniotic sac- caused by chromosomal abnormalities.
What is incomplete mole?Tumor usually attached to fetal part and partially preserve normal placental tissue. Caused by oocytes fertilized with 2 spermatozoa.
What are the clinical signs of GTD?Enlarged uterus without any signs of fetal movement, high level of hCG, spontaneous abortion, induced abortion if detected.
What is Choriocarcinoma?Malignant tumor composed of placental cells.
Where does it develop from?50% Hydatidiform mole 25% placental cells after abortion 25% normal placenta.
What does it secretehCG hormone
Is it invasive?Very. Invades veins, metastasizes to lung liver and brain. responds well to chemotherapy.
What is the cure rate?80-100% if caught before metastasis to brain.