Pathology Chpt.12-13 cont.

rad2329's version from 2015-04-21 15:21

Section 1

Question Answer
A number of endocrine disorders can result in impaired physical and mental development and growth. How can the effects of these disorders be reduced?In some cases by early intervention with hormone therapy. Keeing regular doctor appointments and monitoring the growth of newborns, infants, and young children to identify problems early.
The number of overweight children is increasing in the U.S., Obese children are at an increased risk of developing what types of diseases? How are these chronic diseases largely preventable?Type 2 diabetes mellitus as young adults, they also have an increased lifetime risk for heart disease and cancer. - Proper diet, weight control, and adequate exercise appropriate for age.
Control of what significantly reduces the risk for developing complications of diabetes. How many adults with diabetes lack basic information that can help control their disease?Blood sugar - Three-fourths
Studies have shown that better control of diabetes helps prevent serious complication that may develop over time. What are some tips to help control blood sugar?Keep your blood glucose within your goal range as much as possible - Take your diabetes medication as prescribed (if on insulin, ask to see a diabetes educator to learn how to adjust your dose). - Increase physical activity. (If you haven't exercised in a while, begin gradually starting at 5-10 minutes daily and increase your activity to at least 30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week). - Achieve and maintain a healthy weight. (Even a 5-7% weight loss will help you better manage your blood glucose).
Why does bone loss occur with aging? How can you slow bone loss?It is due to many endocrine changes. - A good dietary intake of calcium. Stay active with weightbearing exercise to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk for osteoporosis and fractures.
What precautions can you take to help prevent brain and spinal cord injuries?Wear a helmet when riding a bike, snowboard, skateboard, or motorcycle - Never dive into shallow water or water of unknown depth - Reduce the chance of falling at home by removing tripping hazards - Use ladders according to instructions and work with a partner who can hold the ladder.
If there is no cure for spinal injuries, why do some people recover muscle and nerve function following traumatic injuries?Symptoms and signs vary and depend on the location of the injury.Treatment aims to reduce the risk for further injury and promote healing. Immediately following the injury, the head and neck will be immobilized. Surgery may be needed to remove fluid or bone fragments or to fuse broken discs. The extent of recovery depends on the degree of injury.
Explain the benefits of exercise and the brain as we age.Exercise helps with mental and cognitive benefits. Seniors who are active enjoy sharper congnitive skills and better mental and emotional health. Exercise may also reduce the risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. It is best to start an exercise program early so that it will become part of a lifelong habit as aging occurs.
Why should a woman who is thinking about becoming pregnant begin taking folate (vitamin B9)?The prevalence of spina bifida has decreased significantly since the introduction fo folate. The spinal cord defects of spina bifida originate very early in pregnancy, even before a woman may know she is pregnant.
What are some of the physical changes that come with age?Slower reflexes and diminished sense acuity. memory declines in most people to some degree. The prevalence of degenerative diseases increases and infectious diseases are more severe in advanced age.
What are some diseases associated with aging?Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, essential tremor, stroke, and shingles.
Middle age is typical onset for what diseases?ALS, MS, Huntington's, and some cases of Parkinson's. Early-onset Alzheimer's, a genetic form.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention for Shingles?Etiology is Varicella, herpes zoster - Signs and symptoms include painful rash of small, watery blisters with red rim; lesions follow a sensory nerve, confined to one side of the body; severe itching; scarring - Diagnosis is with a physical exam - Treatment is alleviation of symptoms and pain relief, steroids - Prevention includes shingles vaccine; avoid contact with individuals with recent exposure to chickenpox vaccine.
What is the Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention for Alzheimer's?Etiology is Idiopathic; some cases genetic - Signs and symptoms include memory loss, cognitive impairment, emotional changes, confusion - Diagnosis with History and examination - Treatment includes supportive care; treat associated depression - There is no prevention.
What is the Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention for Parkinson's?Unknown ediology; death of CNS neurons that produce dopamine and norepinephrine. - Signs and symptoms include tremor, stiffness, uncontrolled muscle movement, difficulty speaking - Diagnosis through history and examination - Treatment includes L-dopa, carbidopa, treat associated depression - There is no prevention.
What is the Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention Huntington's?Genetic - Signs and symptoms include involuntary, rapid, jerky movements; speech loss; difficulty swallowing; personality changes; carelessness; poor judgement; impaired memory; mental incompetence - Diagnosis through Patient history (inherited disease) and physical exam. - Treatment includes treating associated depression, genetic counseling for family, but there is no cure. - There is no prevention; genetic tests and counseling permit informed decision making.
What is the Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention for stroke?Etiology is trauma - Signs and symptoms include severe, sudden headache, muscular weakness or paralysis on one side, disturbance of speech, loss of consciousness - Diagnosis through angiography, CT scan, MRI - Treatment includes Clot-disolving drugs, surgery, endarterectomy - Prevention includes control of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol; weight loss; stop smoking; maintain regular exercise.
What is the Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention for ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease?Etiology is idiopathic- Signs and symptoms include disturbed motility; fasciculations; atrophy of muscles in hands, forearms, and legs; impaired speech and swallowing; death from pulmonary failure in 3-4 years. - Diagnosis through eletromyogram, nerve conduction study, MRI - Treatment, supportive - There is no prevention.
What is the Etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention for MS?Idiopathic; suspect viral or autoimmune - Signs and symptoms include Muscle impairment, double vision, loss of balance, poor coordination, tingling and numbing sensation, shaking tremor, muscular weakness, emotional changes, remission and exacerbation - Diagnosis through physical exam, patient history, MRI - There is no effective treatment, but treatment does include physical therapy and muscle relaxants, steroids, counseling. - There is no prevention.
What is shingles and how many people are affected each year in the U.S.?an acute painful inflammation of sensory neurons caused by reactivation of the latent chickenpox virus, the varicella zoster virus. Nearly 1 million.
What is a stroke and how many people are affected and killed each year in the U.S.?Stroke is a sudden interuption of blood flow to part of the brain caused by a blood clot or a burst blood vessel within the brain. Lack of oxygen causes brain cells to die within minutes of a stroke's onset. 800,000 affected and 130,000 killed.
What is alzheimers disease, about half of people over what age have AD, and how does death occur in this disease?It is a degenerative disease of the nervous system and the most common form of dementia. It results in progressive destruction of the memory and nearly all other important brain functions. - Over age 85, only about 5% of cases are linked to known genes and considered hereditary - Death results from pneumonia, other infections, or injuries from falls and accidents.
What is multiple sclerosis, how many people does it affect in the U.S. and at what age does it occur?A chronic, progressive, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system - 400,000 with an estimated 10,000 new cases occurring annually. - Almost always between age 15 and 50, and usually between 20 and 40. Women are at greater risk than men.
What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Low Gehrig's disease, how many people does it affect in the U.S. and at what age does the risk for getting the disease increase?A serious terminal disease characterized by progressive loss of motor function. - About 30,000 - Increasing risk after age 30. Risk is also associated with gender, affecting more men than women.
What is Parkinson's disease, how many people does it affect in the U.S. and at what age is onset?A degenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of control over muscle coordination and movement. - About half a million people, but experts feel it may be more prevalent because many cases remain undiagnosed. - Average age is 60 and the risk increases with age, early-onset occurs before 50 and accounts for about 5% of cases.
What is essential tremor, about how many people are affected in the U.S., after what age does the prevalence increase?A disorder characterized by shaking of hands and head, especially during voluntary movements. - More than 5 million although many are probably undiagnosed. - Risk is related to age and genetics, after age 40 prevalence increases greatly and about half of cases are caused by autosomal recessive gene. It can not be prevented.
What are the signs and symptoms of Essential TremorInclude shaking hands and head in a "yes" or "no" pattern. Essential tremor makes it difficult to eat, drink from a glass, write, and grasp objects. Voice tremors also occur. Early signs and symptoms may be confused with Parkinson's disease, but the two do not share signs, symptoms or underlying causes.
How is Essential Tremor diagnosed and what is the treatment?A history and physical exam. The ability to perform simple movements and draw are used to diagnose. Blood tests and imaging tests may be used to rule out other diseases. Treatment involves beta blockers, antiseizure medications, and tranquilizers. Botox injections can improve head and voice tremors. Physical and occupational therapy can teach adaptive skills and improve strength and coordination. Deep brain stimulation may be used for severe tremors that do not respond to medication.