Pathology Chpt. 10-11-12-13

rad2329's version from 2015-04-22 22:19

Section 1

Question Answer
What is Huntinton's disease (Huntinton's Chorea), how many people are affected in the U.S. A progressive degnerative disease of the brain that affects motor and cognitive function. Chorea refers to involuntary and ceaseless, rapid, jerky movements. - 30,000
What is the chief risk factor for Huntinton's Disease and how is caused?It is an autosomal disease, having a parent with it gives a child a 50% chance of inheriting it. - It is caused by a defective gene on chromosome 4 that results in the death of specific neurons in the brain.
What are the signs and symptoms of Huntington's Disease?Usually begin in the 40's. Motor functions degenerate, and HD is characterized by jerking, writhing movements; involuntary sustained muscle contractions; and difficulty walking, speaking, swallowing, and moving the eyes. Cognitive and mental degeneration includes difficulty planning, loss of visual perception, inflexible thinking, and impaired memory. It also causes loss of judgement and impulse control. Angry outbursts and personality changes accompany the progressing disease. People cannot work or live independently. Death follows about 10-30 years after onset of symptoms.
How is Huntington's diagnosed and what is the treatment?It requires a history, patient interview, neurological exam, and psychiatric exam. Imaging techniques such as MRI may appear normal early in the disease. An EEG can reveal characteristic changes and a genetic test can confirm the presence of the defective gene. Treatment is aimed at restoring muscle flexibility and movement and treating depression and related psychiatric and psychological conditions. It can not be prevented and there is no cure.
What is polio (poliomyelitis), how is it transmitted and when was it most prominant?A crippling, potentially fatal viral infection, transmitted orally and infects motor neurons. - In the 1940's and 1950'2.
When was the last case of polio in the U.S. and in what year were there only _____ cases found worldwide and ____ were found in what countries and why?In 1979 - 2003 - 700 - 3/4 in Nigeria, Pakistan, India, where under vaccination has enabled outbreaks.
When was a polio vaccine formulated and by whom?In 1955 - Dr. Jonas Salk and Dr. Albert Sabin.
Describe and explain the vaccine Dr. Salk formlated?It consisted of inactivated poliovirus injected intramuscularly, which stimulated production of antibodies against the virus. With the institution of broad-scale immunization programs, cases dropped off immediately.
Describe and explain the vaccine Dr. Sabin formulated?An oral vaccine that was convenient to administer to large groups. The orrally administered vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies within the digestive system, where the viruses reside and neutralizes the virus in the digestive system, preventing transmission and eliminating carriers..
The CDC recommended a specific vaccine in the year ____. Which vaccine did they recommend and why?In 2000 - Dr. Jonas Salk's - It employs killed virus, which ensures that the vaccine itself will not transmit live polio virus, eliminating possible exposure to live viruses.
When was there a world wide decline in polio and by how much. When does the World Health Organizaion project that the polio virus will be eleminating.Between 1988 and 1998, by 85% - In the near future.
What are the signs and symptoms of polio?Most cases are not paralytic. Signs & symptoms of nonparalytic include fever, sore throat, headache, weakness, vomiting, stiff neck and backache.
What is Postpolio syndrome (PPS)?Recurrence of symptoms of polio many years after initial infection.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is Renal failure and what are the risk factors?Progressive loss of kidney function over time. - Diabetes, flomerulonephritis, or other chronic kidney diseases. Ischemia, hemorrhage, shock, toxins and large kidney stones or tumors.
What happens in renal failure?The kidneys are unable to clear the blood or urea and creatinie, which are nitrogen-containing waste products of protein metabolism. These metabolic products are toxic if they accumulate in the blood, a condition called uremia which signifies the terminal stage.
What are the diagnostic tests for renal failure and what is the treatment?blood tests for blood urea nitrogen and tests of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR determines the ability of the kidney to clear creatinine. When GFR is impaired, the serum creatinine level rises and the creatinine clearance rate falls. The treatment depends on the underlying cause and usually includes renal dialysis.
Explain the manifestation of chronic renal failure.Accumulation of waste products, urea, uric acid, and creatine in blood - In the respiratory system deep, sighing repsiration, urine smell to breath - In the digestive system, ammonia taste in mouth, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea - In the urinary system, pyruia, hematuria, albuminuriua, and casts. - In the nervous system, drowsiness, dim vision, mental cloudiness, convulsions, or coma.
What is end-stage renal disease (ESRD)?A complete failure of kidney functioning and ends in death. It follows the final stages of chronic kidney disease when dialysis or kidney tranplantaion have not succeeded.
What measures can be done to reduce the risk for ESRD?Control blood pressure and blood sugar levels - If diabetic or hypertensive, monitor total urine protein levels - if at high risk, reduce dietary protein. - Do not smoke.
Describe writings from ancient times regarding the disease we know now as diabetes.Ancient Hindu writings record distinctive signs thousands of years ago; large volumes of urine, to which ants and flies were attracted; intense thirst; and a wasting of the body. No treatment or cure existed for this mysterious ailment, which killed children and whose complications crippled survivors.
How, when and what organ was found to have been linked to diabetes?In the late 19th century when it was observed in dogs whose pancreas had been removed experimentally.
What key component in the organ of what animal was isolated and identified as what ?Dog Pancreas - Protein hormone insulin.
Instead of treating patients with insulin extracted from dog pancreas, what is the treatment today.Human insulin is synthesized using recombinant DNA technology.
What is the etiology of Type 1 diabetes mellitus?Immune system attacks and destroys beta cells.
What is the etiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus?Not preventable, although excess weight and physical inactivity seem to be contributing factors.
What are the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes and how is it diagnosed?Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss. - Urine test, blood glucose testing.
What are the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes and how is it diagnosed?Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, slow wound healing - Urine test, blood glucose testing.
What is the treatment for Type 1 diabetes?Insulin, exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet, monitoring blood sugar.
What is the treatment for Type 2 diabetes?Blood sugar monitoring, healthy eating, regular exercise, diabetes medication, insulin therapy.

Section 3

Question Answer
At what time in history did cervical cancer become known and what physician described and attempted to treat it?In Ancient times, in 400 B.C.E the Greek physician Hippocrates.
For centuries the cause of cervical cancer remained unknown, in the 1840's what was blamed for the cancer, and during the 1940's and 1950's what did physicians propose caused cervical cancer.Tight corsets were blamed - Physicians proposed that smegma, a thick sebaceous gland secretion beneath the foreskin, caused it.
When did a breakthrough occur with cervical cancer and how did the breakthrough occur?In the 1960's and 1970's when microbiologists suspected that a virus caused it, but they mistakenly identified it as herpes simplex virus.
When and by who discovered the etiological agent of most cervical cancers?In the 1980's, Dr. Harald zur Hausen concluded that the human papillomavirus is the cause.
When and what vaccine has been approved for human papillomavirus?In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the Gardasil vaccine which protects against four types of the human papillomavirus.
What is cervical cancer and how many women are affeted by this disease?A malignant neoplasm that forms within tissues of the cervix. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that in 2013 approximately 12,340 cases with be diagnosed and 4,030 women will die from it in the U.S. An estimated 528,000 women were diagnosed and 266,000 died from it worldwide in 2012.
What is the average age for cervical ancer and what is the most important risk factor?48 - Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Women who smoke are about twice as likely as nonsmokers to get the disease.
For whom and at what age does the Academy of Pediatrics recommend getting the vaccine and what are the types of vaccines and how many doses are required?all girls and boys between the ages of 11 and 12 should receive the "three-does" vaccine for HPV.
What are the HPV vaccines available and what HPV viruses does it protect against?Gardasil and Cervarix offer protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18; Gardasil also offers protection against HPV 6 and HPV 11, which cause 90% of genital warts cases. Cervical cancer can be prevented via abstinence.
What are the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer?Lower abdominal pain, fever, unusual vaginal discharge that may have a foul odor, painful intercourse, painful urination, and irregular bleeding.
How is cervical cancer diagnosed and treated?Pelvic examination, Pap test, HPV DNA test, colposcopy, cervical biopsy - Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy.
What is the 5 year survival rate for cervical cancer?For localized it is 92%, which suggests that women benefit from early diagnosis. For all stages combined it is 70%.

Section 4

Question Answer
What is breast cancer and what is the average age?A malignant tumor that forms in tissues, ducts, or glands of the breast. It is found mostly in women but also in men. - 65
How many people were diagnosed with Breast Cancer in 2013 in the U.S.?Approximately 232,340 cases of invasive and 39,620 died.
How many people were diagnosed with Breast Cancer in 2012 Worldwide?An estimated 1.67 million were diagnosed and 522,000 died.
What are the risk factors for breast cancer?Never having given birth, having your first child after age 35, beginning menopause after age 55, genetic risk factors, being overweight or obese after menopause, lack of physical activity, drinking alcohol, breast density, being caucasian, and family or personhistory of breast cancer.
What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?A lump or mass with irregular borders within the breast. Skin irritation or dimpling; breast or nipple pain; nipple retraction; redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin; and a nipple discharge other than breast mild.
How many breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary and what mutation is thought to have a chance of developing breast cancer by what age?5-10%, - A BRACA1 or BRACA2 mutation have a 50-85% of developing breast cancer by age 70.
At what age and how often should women begin breast cancer screening?Women in their 20's and 30's should have a clinical breast examination (CBE) by a health professional every 3 years. After age 40 a CBE should be done every year. Women 50 and older should also have a mammography yearly.
Anterior pituitary and its target organs - GH (Growth hormone)?Growth of bone and soft tissue
Anterior pituitary and its target organs - follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH)Testis
Anterior pituitary and its target organs - follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteininzing hormone (LH)?Ovary
Anterior pituitary and its target organs - prolactin?Breast
Anterior pituitary and its target organs - adrenocorticotropic horone (ACTH)?Adrenal cortex
Anterior pituitary and its target organs - thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)?Thyroid

Section 5

Question Answer
What is the pituitary gland and where is it located also called what?A pea-sized organ at the base of the brain. - Hypophysis.
What is the pituitary composed of?An anterior lobe called the neurohypophysis, posterior lobe called the neurohypophysis, A stalk called the infundibulum connects the pituitary gland to the floor of the hypothalamus.
What regulates the pituitary gland?The hypothalamus and, with feedback control, by circulating hormones.
The anterior pituitary gland stimulates what six major hormones?Prolactin, grouth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).
What are the six major hormones of the anterior pituitary colllectively called?Tropic hormones, meaning that they control the function of other endocrine glands.
The Endogrine gland, Anterior pituitary, what does the function of the Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)?Stimulates the production of the thyroid hormones.
The Endogrine gland, Anterior pituitary, what does the function of the Adrenocortictropic hormone (ACTH)?Stimulates the release of adrenal cortex hormones.
The Endogrine gland, Anterior pituitary, what does the function of the Growth hormone (GH)?Increases the synthesis of protein and promotes the growth of bone and tissues.
The Endogrine gland, Anterior pituitary, what does the function of the Prolactin?Stimulates breast development and milk production.
The Endogrine gland, Anterior pituitary, what does the function of the Luteinizing hormone (LH)?Stimulates the production of sex hormones; LH surge causes ovulation.
The Endogrine gland, Anterior pituitary, what does the function of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)? Stimulates egg and sperm production.