Jane, a college sophomore, experienced painful urination and noticed blood in the urine. what can explain her symptoms and hematuria?
The pain is not normal during urination. Because of a short urethra, females are susceptible to urinary tract infections. This could be an infection of the urethra or the urinary bladder, which would cause painful urination with blood in the urine. The treatment is antibiotics.
Britany, a thin fourth crader experienced a significant weight gain within 2 weeks' time. Just before holiday break, she had a bad sore throat, but after a visit to the doctor, those symptoms subsided. Her abdomen was distended and she had edema of the extremities. She complained of abdominal discomfort and general aches. Urinalysis indicated protein-uria and hematuria. A follow-up bood screen found antibodies to streptococci. What may explain Britany's symptoms?
The patient had developed edema because of glomerulonephritis that followed her streptococcal throat infection. Glomerulonephritis is a sequela of streptococcal infections of the throat and skin. The glomerular inflammation is caused by an antigen-antibody complex that impairs the filtration process. Treatment includes antibiotics and anti-inflammatories.
A mother of a 4-month-old infant, while giving a bath, noticed and palpated a mass on the right side of the child's abdomen. The child was irritable and somewhat lethargic. What might explain this mass, and what diagnostic techniques can help determine the nature of the disease?
In an infant, this could be Wilm's tumor, a fast-acting malignant tumor of the kidney. However the infant may also have an abdominal or inguinal hernia. Physical exam may help determine the location and nature of the mass. A CT will help image the mass. If a tumor, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the treatments.
A 52-year-old grandfather's urinalysis revealed blood (hematuria). The x-ray showed a renal mass on the right side. What is the probable cause for the hematuria, and what treatment would be recommended?
This patient has a renal tumor, and hematuria results from damage to the renal tissue. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the treatments.
A young woman reports severe pelvic pain. Laproscopic examination found endometrial tissue on the uterine wall and ovaries. Name this disease. What is the etiology? What treatments are available?
The condition is endometriosis; the etiology is idiopathic. Treatments include pain relievers, hormone therapy, and surgery.
A 16-year-old, sexually active woman complains of a green, frothy, foul-smelling vaginal discharge. What is the possible diagnosis? What tests would you perform? What treatment is available?
Trichomoniasis is a possible diagnosis. Tests and procedures would include pelvic examination, microscopic visualization, culture, and laboratory and pH tests. Antiparasitic medication is the available treatment.
A 63-year-old male says he gets up several times a night to urinate but has difficulty getting urination started. A DRE reveals an enlarged prostate gland. What are the possible diagnoses? What test would you perform? What treatment is available?
Possible diagnoses include benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer. A digital-rectal examination, PSA test, and biopsy might be performed. Treatments include watchful waiting, surgery, and hormone therapy.
A woman has been infected with HSV-2. Describe how she can reduce the risk of transmission of the infection to her sexual partner.
Decreasing transmission includes monogamy, use of condoms and dental dams, and regular pelvic exams. Taking antiviral medication on a regular basis may decrease transmission of the virus.
When baby Christopher was born, the pediatrician discovered that his left testicle had not descended into the scrotum. Name this disease. What complications may arise? What treatments are available?
Cryptorchidism is the name of the disease, and complications can include infertility and testicular cancer. Hormone therapy and surgery are possible treatments.
Why do many physicians sometimes recommend active surveillance for prostate cancer?
Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some men (especially those who are older or who have other major health problems) may never need treatment for their cancer.
A mother brings her 5-year-old son to the pediatrician with complaints that her son has been wetting the bed consistently. The child has a good appetite, drinks a lot of water, and has a high metabolism, according to the mother. On examination the doctor notes that the child has lost 10 pounds since his last physical 6 months ago. What diseases should be ruled out?
Diabetes type 1 is consistent with age of onset, high urine production, and weight loss when the boy should be growing. It is possible that weight loss could be due to hyperthyroidism.
A 59-year-old woman reports to the doctor's office. The doctor notes the patient's face seems very round, there is a terrible bruise on her leg that was there since her last examination 2 months ago, and the patient has gained weight. What disease might this woman have?
cushing's syndrome is consistent with this history and these signs and symptoms.
A comatose 45-year-old man is brought to the emergency room with severe dehydration, slow deep breathing, and fruity-smelling breath. What disease complication might this man have? What treatment is needed.
A diabetic coma is consistent with this history and these signs and symptoms. Treatment with insulin is needed.
J.A. has had a severe headache for the last 12 hours, a fever of 102 F, plus a stiff neck. Following a lumbar puncture, Streptococcus pneumoniae was found in the culture along with low sugar levels and higher protein values. What disease best explains these signs and symptoms? What is the prognosis and treatment?
Bacterial meningitis, which is a very serious, potentially fatal infectious disease. The signs and symptoms and lumbar puncture results all indicate meningitis. Treatment requires intravenous antibiotics, analgesics, and anti-inflammatories.
J.L became increasinly forgetful and disoriented around age 65. Before that he was an intelligent, working, and active grandparent. He cannot recall the names of his grandchildren and he gets lost while driving home. What disease may be affecting J.L.?
The patient exhibits signs of dementia. A common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which is progressive and eventually fatal. To distinguish between the types of dementia, he should visit his doctor for a complete evaluation and counseling.