Pathology chapter 6-7-8-9 part 1

rad2329's version from 2015-04-22 22:21

Section 1

Question Answer
The paramedics are called for a 59-year-old male who is experiencing severe chest pain while playing golf. What type(s) of heart or vascular disease should be considered in this patient?Atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and myocarditis.
A 65-year-old female reports to her physician with shortness of breath, feeling of faintness, dizziness, and productive cough, all of which have persisted over the past 2 months. Upon examination, the physician reports a blood pressure of 90/50 mm Hg, congestion in the lungs, and abnormal heart sounds. What type of heart diseases should be considered in this patient?Coronary Heart Disease, Congestive Heart Disease, and Myocarditis.
A 30-year-old obese female complains of pain with walking. The patient has a history of smoking cigarettes and is a "borderline diabetic." Explain the role of cardiovascular risk factors for cardiovascular diseases for this patient.Smoking increases risk of atherosclerosis, chronic venous insufficiency, and cardiac arrhythmia. Diabetes increases risk of atherosclerosis, hypercholesteremia, peripheral artery disease, and coronary heart disease.
a 42-year-old female has been fatigued for the past few months. The onset of her illness was poorly defined, and aside from a lack of energy she has no other complaints. She reported becoming short of breath when climbing the stairs or walking for a prolonged distance. She told her doctor that she had recently experienced some weight loss following the death of her mother. What diseases or conditions should be considered in this patient? What additional information do you need to make a correct diagnosis?Anemia should be considered with this patient and weight loss occurs with gastrointestinal malabsorption, stress, and cancer. A blood test and health history will help confirm the diagnosis.
B.K. is a 65-year-old male admitted to the hospital for surgery. B.K. had been on blood thinners in the past for the treatment of a clotting disorder. He is fearful of going to the hospital because last time he had a severe bleeding episode. What conditions should B.K.'s doctors be concerned about? What are some of the symptoms and diagnostic tests that should be considered for this patient?Thrombocytopenia, Impaired Synthesis of Clotting Factors, and Vitamin K Deficiency. Symptoms to look for include prolonged bleeding, petechiae (pinpoint, round spots that appear on the skin as a result of bleeding under the skin), and ecchymosis (Blood collects under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura), or in a very large bruised area). Diagnostic test include blood tests and bone marrow testing.
Sheila just graduated from college and moved into an apartment with a roommate. She is excited because her and her roommate decided to get a cat. Sheila was never allowed to have a pet when she was growing up because her dad has allergies. It has only been a few weeks since they moved in and she is not feeling well. She has a runny nose, is congested, and is sneezing. What disease might Sheila have? What diagnostic procedures would be helpful in diagnosing her disease?Allergic rhinitis. A physical examination, medical history, and allergy testing are helpful in diagnosing allergic rhinitis.
Bill just had surgery on a severely broken leg. He has a cast from his hip to his toes. he was in the hospital for about a week and has been home for a few days. Bill's recovery was going well until he suddenly complains of dyspnea and chest pain and is coughing up blood. What disease might Bill have? What is the probably cause of the disease.Pulmonar embolism. The patient had a blood clot in his leg that broke loose and traveled to his lung where it is blocking an artery.
Sara loved to run. She watched the track meets at school even as a first grader. An asthmatic, she occasionally needed to use an inhaler, but she seemed determined to be an athlete. Should Sara be discourage from pursuing her goal? Why or why not?The patient should be able to pursue track and enjoy running because asthma can be managed with medicine and by avoiding triggers.
A 45-year-old woman experiences frequent hearburn, difficulty swallowing, and sharp pains below her sternum. At night, she experiences gastric reflux, or a regurgitation of stomach acid into the esophagus, a condition that is extremely painful. what could produce these symptoms? what diagnostic procedures could be used? How should she be treated?Gastroreflux disease (GERD). History should reveal a pattern of pain that follow meals and occurs at night or when prone. A physical exam can rule out little, but endoscopy can reveal abnormalities at the junction of the stomach and esophagus, such as a hiatal hernia. Treatment involves behavior changes such as taking smaller meals and avoiding food an hour before sleeping. Serious symptoms require surgical repair of the hiatal hernia.

Section 2

Question Answer
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, approximately _______ men and ______ women worldwide die each year from coronary heart disease?3.8 million, 3.4 million
What does diagnosis of coronary heart disease require?Physical exam, patient medical history, and electrocardiogram (ECG).
What is a patient's medical history used for regarding the diagnosis of coronary heart disease?Identify hereditary and lifestyle risk factors for the disease.
What is the ECG used for?Records the heart's electrical activity and can aid in identifying abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm as well as areas of damaged heart tissue.
What are additional diagnostic tests used to diagnose coronary heart disease?Echocardiograms - Stress Tests - Nuclear Imaging - Angiography.
The treatment for CHD depends on the severity of the disease and may include what?Medications including blood pressure lowering agents, blood thinners, diuretics, nitrates such as nitroglycerin to stop chest pain, and lipid lowering medication. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy, low-salt diet and exercise, are important to prevent further progression of the disease.
If needed what procedures are used to treat CHD?Angioplasty with stent placement - Coronary artery bypass surgery.
What are the symptoms of CHD?Chest pain, Angina Pectoris, (pain and pressure felt in the chest that results from ischemia), Palpitations or a sensation of a rapid pounding heartbeat, Dizziness, Fainting, Weakness upon exertion or at rest, and Shortness of breath, Myocardial infarction (cardiac arrest or a heart attach).
What are the risk factors for coronary heart disease?Hypertension - Family history - Sedentary lifestyle - Overweight - High blood lipid levels - Atherosclerosis - Smoking.
What are the some symptoms of a myocardial infarction?Crushing pain in the chest - Shortness of breath - Nausea - Pallor - Weakness - Faintness
What is Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)?A disease of reduced coronary blood flow.
What does coronary artery bypass surgery do?Reroutes blood flow around the clogged arteries to improve blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.

Section 3

Question Answer
What is sickle cell anemia?An inherited genetic disorder marked by severe hemolytic anemia, painful episodes called sickle cell crises, and increased susceptibility to infections.
What are the two forms of sickle cell disease?Heterozygotes (inherit the gene from one parent) have sickle cell trait, a mild disease. - Homozygotes (inherited the two genes, one from each parent) have the severe form known as sickle cell anemia.
Approximately ____ of African Americans have the sickle cell trait?10%.
In sickle cell disease, red blood cells contain an abnormal form of what?Hemoglobi, or hemoglobin S.
T.W. experiences sharp pain in his upper right abdomen after eating a high-fat meal. Also he has noted that is feces are grayish white instead of brown. What disease is the likely cause of his symptoms? Explain why each of these symptoms occurs with this disease.Cholelithiasis (gallstones). If bile flow to the small intestine is blocked, dietary fat remains undigested and is not absorbed from the intestines. As a result, fat appears in the feces. Follwoing a high-fat meal the gallbaldder secretes bile into the fmall intestine. Gallstones lodge in the bile ducts and cause pain in the upper right abdomen.
Explain how cirrhosis leads to each of this signs and symptoms: jaundice, malnutrition, hemorrhage, esophageal varices.Normal liver tissue is replaced by scar or fat tissue, which does not function as normal liver tissue. The liver does not process hemoglobin that comes from dying erythrocytes and the orange and yellow colored breakdown products build up in blood, tinting the skin and eyes yellow. Normal liver tissue processes carbohytdrates and proteins and manufactures bile, which is used for fat absorption and the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. The normal liver also manufactures clotting proteins. Finally, as blood flow through the liver is restricted by cirrhosis, abdominal and esophageal venous pressure increases, which leads to the distortion of the esophageal veins.