Pathology Chapter 18- Diseases of the Integument

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Section 1

Question Answer
why is lesions of the integument important to embalmersthey can indicate the existance of a disease
acneterm for blackheads, whiteheads, and pimples on the skin
lesiona physical change in body tissues caused by a disease or an injury
abcesslocalized collection of pus that is walled off by a membrane formed by the body's immune system cells (macrophages)
what does an abcess result frompyogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus)
what are skin abcesses often the result ofwounds that tear skin and drive infectious microorganisms deep into tissue
when does a fatal infection develop due to an abcessinfectious organisms spread through the tissue and blood stream to the remainder of the body

Section 2

Question Answer
what is usually present in the primary stage of syphilisa lesion known as a chancre
chancrehard, primary ulcer due to syphilis infection appearing approximately 2-3 weeks after infection
what occurs during the secondary stage of syphilisulcerations of mucous membranes, particularly mouth; along with copper red rash
what occurs during the tertiary stage of syphilisrubber like lesion known as a gumma is present
gummainfectious lesioun due to tertiary syphilis consisting of a central necrotic mass surrounded by an inflammatory zone and fibrous deterioration
what do lesions require during embalmingtopical disinfecting preservatives

Section 3

Question Answer
seborrheic dermatitis (seborrhea)disorder of the sebaceous glands of scalp, face, and trunk, fungus, and immune system abnormalities
symptoms of sebborhea are aggrivated by whathumidity, scratching, change in seasons, and emotional stress
cradle capthick formation of crust over the scalp
seborrheic dermatitis may appear in combo with whatsystemic disorders such as parkinsons or AIDS
what causes sebbrohea in infantshormones from the uterus
what causes sebbrohea in elderlyfungal infections
why does an embalmer have to be cautious with sebborheahair and scalp is very fragile

Section 4

Question Answer
psoriasischronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by red, thickened areas with silvery scales, most often in scalp, elbows, knee, and back
what causes psoriasisunknown, but thought to be abnormality in functioning of white blood cells, which causes immune system to shed cells prematurely, so skin grows excessively and scales form
psoriasis treatmentsteroids, scalp treatments, synthetic vitamin D, topical cream, UV light therapy
eczemageneral term for a variety of inflammatory skin conditions
what is eczema charcterized bydry, red, extremely itchy patches on the skin that may ooze
where does eczema occur in infantsforehead, cheeks, forearms, legs, scalp, and neck
where does eczema occur on adultsface, neck, insides of elbows, knees, ankles

Section 5

Question Answer
vitiligoidiopathic disorder in which melanocytes stop producing pigment are destroyed
what does vitiligo result inwhite, patchy spots on the affected part, which can occur anywhere
where are vitiligo patches more likely to occurhands, feet, arms, face, and lips
what other diseases can resemble vitiligopernicious anemia and hyperthyroidism

Section 6

Question Answer
melanocytic nevusa mole, which is an early sign of skin cancer
molespigmented epithelial tumors on the skin, and changes in them may be precancerous
examples of skin cancerbasal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma
symptoms of skin cancermole with "red halo", that oozes fluid, becomes crusty, and so forth

Section 7

Question Answer
bedsores/decubitus ulcerpreventable pressure sores that occur when tissue is compressed between a surface and a superficial bone, which cuts off blood circulation to an area, which then causes necrosis
stage 1 bed soreskin is unbroken, red, and superficial
stage 2 bedsorepartial layer of skin is injured and a blister is present
stage 3 bedsorebedsore extends to all layers of skin and infection is at risk
stage 4 bedsorebedsore has reached underlying muscle and bone; it is necrotic and infected
stage 5 bedsoreclassification in which wound is extremely deep, involving organs

Section 8

Question Answer
comedosebaceous follicle plugged with sebum, dead cells, hairs, and bacteria. Above skin-blackhead, Below skin- whitehead
papulesmall solid lesion slightly elevated above the surface of the skin
pustuledome shaped lesion containing pus, bacteria, and blood cells
maculetemporary red spot left by healing lesion
nodulescar left by lesion
cystsaclike lesion containing semiliquid material consisting of wbc, dead cells, and bacteria