Pathology Chapter 17- Diseases of the Endocrine system

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Section 1

Question Answer
type I diabetesinsulin dependent
type II diabetesnon-insulin dependent
what does a diabtics breath smell likesweet due to the presence of acetone in the body
diabtes mellitusmetabolic disorder in which the carbs that break down into sugars in the digestive system are not digested effectively because of a lack of appropriate insulin production in the pancreatic islets
what happens if diabetes mellitus is left untreatedcoma and death
what can diabeties causeblindness, carbuncles of legs and feet, ulcers of feet, amputation of lower extremities, and renal failure/cardiac disorders
what complications can diabates mellitus causeelevated blood sugar, excessive urination (polyuria), excessive thirst, increased appetite

Section 2

Question Answer
where do most pancreatic cancers beginin the ducts that carry pancreatic juices
where does cancer of the pancreas tend to spreadnearby lymph nodes, the peritoneum, the liver, and the lungs
symptoms of pancreatic cancerpain in upper abdomen/back, jaunidce, dark urine, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting
what is pancreatic cancer AKAthe silent killer

Section 3

Question Answer
acromegalyhyperfunction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland after ossification has been completed
what is acromegaly charcterized byelongation and enlargement of the bones of the extremities and certain head bones, especially frontal bone and jaw
what causes acromegalyover production of growth hormone in the anterior portion of the pituitary gland
in most cases of acromegaly in adults, what causes the over production of hormonesa benign tumor AKA adenoma
characteristics of acromegalyabnormal growth of hands/feet, big nose/lips, protrusion of brow/jaw, thick coarse skin, deep voice, excessive sweating, diabates

Section 4

Question Answer
somatotropinhuman growth hormone
what does overproduction of growth hormone causegigantism or giantism
difference between acromegaly and gigantismacromegaly- adult, gigantism- kids
if pituitary fails to secrete enough hormone, what happensgrowth is stunted and dwarfism occurs

Section 5

Question Answer
difference between diabtes mellitus and diabetes insipidusmellitus- disorder of pancreas, insipidus- disorder of the kidneys and pituitary gland
diabtes insipidusuncommon condition rsulting from inhability of the kidneys to conserve water
function of the kidney is controlled by whatrelease of antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary gland
where is antidiuretic hormone producedin the hypothalamus, but stored and released by the pituitary gland
most pronounced symptoms of insipidusextreme thirst and excessive urination
what causes diabetes insipidusdamage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland caused by surgery, infection, tumors, or head injury

Section 6

Question Answer
cretinismhypothyroid condition of infants and children in which the thyroid gland does not secrete sufficient quantities of thyroid hormones
cretinism is charcterized byarrested physical and mental development, dystrophy of bones, lowered basal metabolism
myxedemaclinical manifestation of hypothyroidism that includes an infiltration of the skin by a thick, gelatinous substance formed by the bonding of water and mucopolysaccarides, which gives skin a waxy feel
what does myxedema usually result fromlack of iodine in the diet, but can result from surgical removal of they thyroid gland or excessive use of thyroid drugs
symptoms of myexdemaenlargement of tounge, coarse and thick skin, slow speech, puffy skin, dry hair, mental apathy, drowsiness
what is cretinism and myexdema treated bythyroid hormone replacement therapy

Section 7

Question Answer
graves diseasedistinct type of hyperthyroidism caused by an autoimmune attack on they thyroid gland
hyperthyroidismoveractive thyroid gland
what occurs during graves diseaseantibodies are produced that stimulate growth of the thyroid gland, excessive growth results in excessive thyroid hormone production
grave disease characteristicsfatigue, weight loss, tachyardia (rapid heart beat), changes in libido, heat intolerance, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, blurred vision, hair changes,
exopthalmiahyperplasia of the eyeballs

Section 8

Question Answer
goiterexcessive growth of the thyroid gland due to a lack of iodine in the diet
simple goiteroccurs when the thyroid gland enlarges to overcome deficiencies in the production of thyroid hormones
endemic goiters AKA colloid goitersgenerally result in lack of iodine, which is needed for the production of thyroid hormone
sporadic goiters AKA toxic goitersunknown cause, but they may result from the use of certain medications like lithium and aminoglutehimide

Section 9

Question Answer
what do parathyroid galnds doregulate the level of clacium in the bodys tissue
hyperparathyroidismoverproduction of hormones from parathyroid gland
charcteristics of hyperparathyroidismwekaness, weightloss, fatigue, muscle atrophy, bone pain, gastrointestinal distress
hypoparathyroidismunderproduction of hormones from parathyroid gland
charcteristics of hypoparathyroidismmouth numbness, muscle cramps, depression, irritability
chvosteks testtwitching of muscles of mouth, nose, eyelids, evoked by tapping of facial nerve
trousseaus signblood pressure cuff is inflated above normal systolic pressure for over 2 minutes, causing spasms of wrist

Section 10

Question Answer
addisons diseaserare endocrine disorder, occuring when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough of the hormones cortisone and aldosterone
charcterisitcs of addison diseaseweight loss, muscle weakness, dizziness and fainting, bronze skin color, nuasea, vomiting, diarrhea
what occurs in 70% of addison diseases patientsautoimmune disorder causes adrenal cortex to be destroyed by own body
glucocoricoid hormonesused to treat inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and ulcerative colitis

Section 11

Question Answer
cushings dyndromeiatrogenic disorder of the adrenal glands due to chronic glucocorticoid hormone therapy
what does cushings syndrome result fromelevated levels of cortisone in the body, tumors of adrenal gland
characterstics of cushings dieseaserounded face, obese upper body, metal retarded, purple strech marks, transluscent, think skin, easy bruising, diabtes

Section 12

Question Answer
waterhouse-friderichsen syndromefailure of the adrenal glands to secrete appropriate levels of corticosteroids due to bleeding within the adrenal cortex
what is waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome characterized byseptic bacteria infection with a rapidly deteriorating progression
what does waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome manifest withcongestion of the blood vessels and insufficient levels of platelets disrupting proper blood clotting
postmortem ocnditionsedema, discolration, deformities, circulatory discolorations

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