Pathology Chapter 16- Disease of Bone & Joints

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Section 1

Question Answer
osteoperosisloss of bone mass that occurs throughout the skeleton, resulting in a predisposition to bone fracture
Type II osteoperosiscaused by aging; which causes bone loss in both men and women, predisposing them to hip and vertebral fractures
Type I osteoperosisdisorder effecting postmenopausal women, a disorder that has slow onset, characterized by loss of bone tissue causing weak, brittle bones
What does Type I osteoperosis occur as a result ofloss of protective effects of estrogen on bone that takes place after menopause
what is particularily common among people with osteoperosisfractures of the bones of the hip, spine, and wrist
characteristic of advances osteoperosissevere curvature of the spine
characteristics that advance chances of osteoperosisthin frame, caucasian, cigarettes, genetics, eating disorder, low calcium, inactive lifestyle
leading cause of osteoperosislack of estrogen

Section 2

Question Answer
osteomyelitisinflammatory disorder of bone and bone marrow resulting from pyogenic bacteria
two prevalent forms of osteomyelitishematogenous ostemyelitis and direct inoculation osteomyelitis
hematogenous osteyelitisinfection caused by bacteria that migrate from the blood into the bone, which occurs primarily in children
what occurs during hematogenous myelitisblood vessels in the bone get clotted by slow blood and can cause bone to turn necrotic and bacteria to grow
direct or contiguous inoculation osteomyelitiscaused by direct contact of bacteria during trauma or surgery
osteomyelitis is charcterized by whatfatigue, fever, restricted movement, edema, nonhealing ulcer, late stage sinus infection
what typically occurs during osteomyelitisan abcess forms on the shaft of the bone

Section 3

Question Answer
osteomalaciadisease marked by softening of the bones due to faulty calcification in adulthood,
rickets disease of infants and young children caused by deficiency of vitamin D, resulting in defective bone growth
deficiencies of calcium and phosphate typically cause whatsoftening of the bone
deficiences of calcium and phosphate is caused by whatlack of vitamin D
different causes of osteomalasiahereditary or acquired disorders, kidney failure, low dietary intake, cancer, and seizure medication, lack of milk and sunlight
symptoms of ostemalasiabone pain, muscle weakness, bone fractures, mouth numbness, hand spasms, abnormal heart beat

Section 4

Question Answer
most common form of joint disorderarthritis
why is arthritis typically not removed during embalmingextravascular edema, deep inside the tissues
major complications due to arthritispoor distribution and difficulty of positioning
characterisitcs of artheritisredness, joint swelling, lack of flexibility, hardening and stiffening of joints, disfigurement of joints
contracturesjoints and tissues surrounding joints that stiffen during immobility

Section 5

Question Answer
osteoarthritis degenrative joint disease, caused by detrioration of joint cartilage, which causes bones to rub against each other; resulting in pain, inflmmation, and loss of movement
where does osteoarthritis effecthands and weight-bearing joints such as knees, hips, feet, and back
who is at increased risk of osteoarthritispeople with sports, work, and accidental injuries
rheumatoid arthritisinflammation of the lining of the joints or internal organs, which occurs in flare ups and remissions
what is rheumatoid arthritis charcterized byinflammation of the synovial membrane and the cardinal signs of inflammation
what causes rheumatoid arthitisunknown, but is a autoimmune disease (body attacks healthy tissue)
psoriatic arthritisinflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis, a chronic skin and nail disease
what joints does psoriatic arthritis typically effectjoints of fingers or toes, joints of extremities, or the sacroilliac joint and spine
psoriatic arthritis involving the sacro iliac spinepsoriatic spondylitis
what causes psoriatic arthritisunknown, but interplay of immune system, genetic, and environmental factors are suspected

Section 6

Question Answer
bursitisinflammation of the bursae in certain joints of the body
bursae small fluid filled sacs that become inflammed causing joint pain
commonly effected areas of joint bursasshoulders, elbows, and hips
less commonly effected areas of joint bursasknees, heels, and 3rd base of big toes
symptoms of bursistisdull ache of stiffness, worsening pain when moved, swelling of joint, heat and redness around the inflamed joint
what causes bursitisoveruse, stress or strain of a oint, or repeated bumping of joint

Section 7

Question Answer
bone fracturea break in a bone, accompanied by damage to surrounding tissues
simple bone fracturebone does not protrude through the skin
compound bone fracturebone protrudes through the skin, which can become infected causing damage to surrounding tissues
causes of bone fracturesaging, osteoperosis, diets lacking calcium/vitamin D, meds
bone fractures can cause whatpain, swelling, bruising, limb deformation, loss of function, numbness/tingling

Section 8

Question Answer
scoliosisdevelopmental disorder of the spine in which the spinal column exhibits a lateral curvature
cause of scoliosisunknown, but possibly due to implicating connective tissue disorder, hormone imbalances, and nervous system disorders
treatment for scoliosisbraces, casts, traction, and electrical stimulation, possible surgery
kyphosisabnormal curvature is in a posterior direction
lordosislumbar vertebra curve abnormally toward anterior of body
what can scoliosis causeeneven shoulders, prominent shoulder blades, uneven waist, elevated hips, leaning to one side

Section 9

Question Answer
achrondoplasiagenetic disorder of bone growth caused either through inheritance or genetic mutation resulting in a condition known as dwarfism
when the pituitary gland secretes growth hormone, what may occura condition known a gigantism
symptoms of achondroplasiashort (4 ft), normal size torso, upper arms and thighs shortened, large head with prominent forehead, poor muscle tone, deformed joints
how does one with achondroplasia die during sleepcompression of the upper end of the spinal cord
pagets diseaseexcessive growth, in the form of hyperplasia, of the bones of the elderly, causing inflammation, thickening, and softening of the bones
what occurs during pagets diseasebone tissue is reabsorbed and synthesis of new bone occurs at high rates
what may cause death during pagets diseasenew bone growth can cause compression of spinal and cranial nerves, also increased cardiac output

Section 10

Question Answer
osteosarcoma/ostegenic sarcomamost common type of cancer that develops in bone
where can osteosarcoma spreadto other nearby tissue and possibly through the blood stream
where is tumor usually located in ostesarcomadistal end of the femur or proximal end of the tibia
second most common site of osteosarcomaproximal end of the humerus where it joins the shoulder
post mortem difficultiesrestoration work, possible bone donation, distribution issues

Section 11

Question Answer
greenstickline of fracture doesn ot include whole bone
closedfracture without rupture of ligaments of skin
compound external wound leads down to site of fracture
impactedbone fragment is forced into another
comminutedbone breaks into small pieces
spiral fracture follows helical line
depressedpiece of bone is broken and driven backwards
colliestransverse fracture of distal end of radius
anglatedfragments lie at angle of each other
displacedfragments seperate and are deformed
nondisplacedtwo sections of bone with normal alignment
overridingfragments overlap and the total length of bone is shortened
segmentalfractures occur in two nearby areas
avaulsedfragments are pulled from their normal positions by muscle