Pathology Chapter 14- Diseases of Female Reproductive System

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Section 1

Question Answer
pelvic inflammatory disease/salpingitisterms used to describe infection and inflammation of the upper gi tract, especially the fallopian tubes
first stage of pelvic inflmmatory diseasea vaginal or cervical infection develops
second stage of pelvic inflammatory diseaseinfection spreads to the upper gi tract
how many stds are identified in the USAover twenty
cost of stds to health care systemover $10 billion
common stdsAIDS, chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonnorhea, and syphillis

Section 2

Question Answer
ectoptic pregnancyimplamantation of the fertilized ovum in a site other than one in the uterine cavity
where does an egg implant during ectoptic pregnancyin the fallopian tube, although it may implant in the ovary, abdomen, or cervix
why does an ectopic pregnancy occurphysical blockage in the fallpian tube or failure of tube epithelium to move the egg
what do women who experience tubal pregnancy have a history ofsalpingitis or pelvic inflammatory disease
pre-eclampsiaserious condition that occurs during pregnancy characterized by hbp, weight gain, and protein in the urine
eclampsiaoccurence of seizures during pregnancy, that cannot be attributed to another cause
what cause eclampsiait is unknown
what increases the risk of eclampsiafirst pregnancies, teen pregnancy, mothers older than 40, African-American women
treatment for eclampsiaincludes medication for blood pressure and seizures

Section 3

Question Answer
endometriosiscondition in which the tissue normally lines the uterus (endometrium), grows in other areas of the body, such as pelvic area, uterus surface, ovaries, and intestines
characteristics of endometriosiscauses pain, irregular bleeding, and infertility as the disease progresses
how does endometrisosis occurthe endothelial cells of the uterine lining cause a physical blockage in the ovaries and tubes
what are ovarian blood cysts AKAchocolate cysts
symptoms of endometriosispainful periods, ab pain, pain during intercourse, painful bowel movement, infertility, splotchiness
ovarian cystssac filled with fluids that develop on or within the ovary
how are ovarian cysts treatedthey disappear on their own
how does an ovarian cyst forma follicle is formed and fails to rupture, but instead the follicle forms a cyst
signs of ovarian cystdull aching pain, pain during sex, pelvic pain, changes in menstrural bleeding, absence of menstruation, ab bloating
dermoid cysttumor that is covered in dermislike tissue that contains sebaceous glands, hair, cartilage, and bones/teeth
cystic teratomadermoid cyst that occurs in the ovary

Section 4

Question Answer
two primary categories of cervical canceradenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma
most common form of cervical cancersquamous cell carcinoma, which develops from the flat cells covering the outer surface of the cervix at the top of the vagina
adenocarcinomaform of cervical cancer that develops in the glandular cells lining the cervical canal
how to test for cervical cancersmear tests
symptoms of cervical cancerabnormal bleeding between periods or after sex, odor, and discomfortable sex
who is breast cancer most common incaucasians over 50
early signs of breast cancerlump or thickening of the breast, change in size/shape, nipple discharge, inverted nipple, warm areola, ridges of breast resemble orange
fine needle aspirationtin needle is used to remove fluid and cells from a breast lump
needle biopsyuse of a larger needle that can remove much fluid and tissue
lumpectomysurgeon removes the lump and an area of healthy tissue around its edges
mestectomyremoval of portion or whole breast

Section 5

Question Answer
subcutaneous masectomyremoval of the entire breast leaving the nipple and areola
total (simple) masectomyremoval of the entire breast, but not axillary lymph nodes
modified (radical) masectomyremoval of the entire breast and most of the axillary lymphnodes
radical masectomyremoval of entire pectoralis muscle and breast/axillary lymph nodes
postmortem ocnditions with reproductive conditionsrapid blood coagulation, ascites, edema, infection, discoloration

Section 6

Question Answer
endometritisinflammation of the lining of the uterus due to bacterial infection
endocervocitisinflammation of the uterus and cervix
salpingitisinflammation of the fallopian (uterine) tube
oophritisinflammation of the ovaries
vaginitisinflammation of the vagina

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