Pathology Chapter 13- Disease of Nervous System

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Section 1

Question Answer
meningitisan infection of the cerebrospinal fluid, which is the fluid surrounding the spinal cord and brain
which is worse viral or bacterial meningitisviral
current cause of bacterial meningitisStreptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis
symptoms of meningitisstiff neck, headache, high fever, seizures, nausea, vomiting
hydrocephaulusdegenerative disorder in which the cerebrospinal fluid fails to be properly drained or absorbed, causing the ventricles of the brain to fill with cerebrospinal fluid
what causes hydrocephaulusdevelopmental anomalies, infection, injury, or brain tumors
treatment for hydrocephaulusshunt used to drain cerebrospinal fluid

Section 2

Question Answer
encephalitisinflammation of the brain
two forms of encephalitisprimary and secondary
primary encephalitisoccurs when a virus directly invades the brain and spinal cord
secondary encephalitisvirus first infects another part of the body and then spreads to the brain
symptoms of encephalitisdrowsiness, confusion, seizures, fever, headache, nausea, vommitng, convulsions, or tremors
convulsionsan abnormal, violent, and involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the muscles
seizuressudden, uncontrolled discharges, of electrical activity in the brain
three broad categories that cause encephalitisherpes virus, chilhood infection, arboviruses

Section 3

Question Answer
myelitisinflammation of the spinal cord, resulting from an infection in the spinal cord, noninfectious necrosing of the spinal cord, or demyelization of the spinal cord
myelitis is charcterized by whatflaccid limb paralysis, incontinence, and weakness or numbness of the limbs
transverse myelitisinflmmatory disorder of the spinal cord
what causes transverse myelitisdemyelization (loss of the fatty tissue that surrounds the nerves)
transverse myelitis symptomslow back pain, spinal cord dysfunction, muscle spasms, headache, loss of appetite, numbness in legs
prognosis of transverse myelitisnot good, only smymptoms can be treated
neuritisinflmmation of a nerve or nerves
causes of neuritisinclude trauma, infection, and posions

Section 4

Question Answer
epilepsyrecurent degenerative disorder of the nervous system marked by repetitive abnormal electrical discharges within the brain known as seizures
how is epiliepsy characterizedby sudden convulsions and seizures or altered concioousess, depending on the type of attack
two types of seizures associated with epilepsygrand mal and petite mal
grand mal seizurescharcterized by fecal and urinary incontinence, uncontrolled contractions of the muscles, loss of consciusness, cry caused by muscle contractions
petite mal seizuresdiffer from grand mal seizures, because they last for a few seconds
rabiesan infection that affects the nervous system and it is casued by the rabies virus
why do people and animals drool while sick with rabiesthey can no longer swallow, due to nervous system
how is rabies spreadthrough the bite and saliva of contaminated animals
what eventually happens to people with rabiesthey become paralyzed

Section 5

Question Answer
multiple sclerosisinflmmatory disease of the central nervous system in which infiltrating lymphocytes, mostly T cells, and macrophages, degrade the myelin sheath of nerves
what is the treatment for MSsteroids
what is assumed to cause MSa viral infection
parkinsons diseasechronic nervous disease charcterized by a fine spreading tremor, muscular weakness, and rigidity, and peculiar gait
why does one shake when they have parkinsonsdiminished levels of dopamene (neurotransmitter) in their brains
recovery from parkinsons diseaserarely occurs

Section 6

Question Answer
dementiaa condition of deteriorated mental ability accompanied by emotional instability
what occurs during dementiait is an progressive, irreversible decline in mental function, marked by memory impairment
most common form of dementia in USAalzheimers deisease
what occurs during the brain during alzheimers diseaseamyloid plaque and bundles of fibers build bup. nerve cells and neurotransmitters also reduced
sundowningconfusion or disorientation that increases in the afternoon r evening
what occurs to one due to alzheimersthey forget how to do simple tasks, and eventually need to be cared for by others
why does sundowning occurit is because the light effects brain stimulation

Section 7

Question Answer
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisa progressive, fatal, neurological disease that belongs to a class of disorders known as motor neuron diseases
what is ALS the result ofthe degeneration of specific nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary movement
weaking of motor neurons cells result in whatthe weakening and atrophy of muscles, which then leads to paralysis
symptoms of ALStripping, loss of motor control, speech impairment, difficulty swallowing (dyspahgia), muscle twitching
gliomasmalignant tumors of lial cells, which provide supporting structure to the neurons of the brain
why are gliomas hard to removethey grow around brain tissue

Section 8

Question Answer
Creutzfeldt Jakob diseaserare, degenerative brain disorder with no known cure
how to confirm one has JCDthe brain is biopsied during an autopsy
symptoms of CJDfailing memory, behavorial changes, lack of coordination, visual disturbances, blindness, coma, involuntary movements
cerebral paulsyterm used to describe a group of chronic disorders charcterized by the impairment of control over movement
what causes cerebral paulsydevelopmental abnormalities, or damage to areas of the brain, disrupting its ability to control movement and posture
symptoms of cerebral paulsylack of motor skills, involuntary movements, seizures and mental impairment
spina bfidacongenital defect in which the spinal cord protrudes
where is the opening of the body where the spinal cord exits when one has spina bfidalumbar vertabrae, AKA (spina bfida cystica)

Section 9

Question Answer
what are strokes AKAtransient ischemic attacks (TIA), cerbrovascular accidents (CVAs)
where does a stroke occurin the blood vessels of the brain
what occurs during a strokea blood vessel bursts in the brain, causing a loss of blood flow to the tissues of the brain, resulting in death of the brain
ischemic strokecerebral blood vessel becomes occluded
hemorrhagic strokecerebral blood vessel ruptures, causing internal bleeding
common effects of strokeloss of motor control, loss of sensory perception, and loss of speech
TIAa stroke that lasts only a few minutes
what occurs during a tiablood supply to the brain is interuppted
symptoms of a TIAsimilar to a severe stroke, but do not last long, however they may persist for as much as a day or so

Section 10

Question Answer
concussiontraumatic injury to the head resulting in temporary loss of consciousness, paralysis, vomiting, and seizures
why is a contusion worse than a concusiioncontusion can include brain hemorrhaging
contusionhead injury of sufficient force to bruise the brain, which often involves the surface of the brain and can cause an extravasation of blood without rupture of the meninges
epidural hematomatraumatic accumulation of blood between the skull and dural membrane, which is most frequent of a ruptured meningal artery
prognosis of epidural hematomavery good, if treated correctly
acute subdural hematomarapidly clotting blood collection below the inner layer of the dura, but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane
subdural hematomableeding between dura mater and the arachnoid membrane
subarachnoid hematomableeding between the pia matter and the arachnoid membrane
where does embalmer insert babay trocar to aspirate the brainthe criboform plate of the ethmoid bone
postmortem conditions of nervous system disordersbrain purge, hemmorrhage, atrophy, diminished circulation
hemorrhagean escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel, especially when profuse

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