Pathology Chapter 12- Diseases of the Urinary System

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Section 1

Question Answer
What is responsible for the production of urine?two kidneys
What is responsible for the elimination of urine?two uterers, urinary bladder, urethra
What is cystitis?inflammation of the bladder
What is urethritis?inflammation of the urethra
What is the etiology of cystitis and urethritis?usually caused by E. Coli; also caused by repeated urinary catheterizations; may be caused by STDs, mainly chlamydia & gonorrhea
What are the signs & symptoms of cystitis and urethritis?fever, dysuria, low abdominal pain, discolored urine
why is the urinary system important to the embalmerthe build up of the element nitrogen is very important
what does nitrogen do to the bodythe higher the formaldehyde demand, due to edema and inhabiting of microorgansims
what difficulties can nitrogen do to the embalming processcause edema, microbial agents, dehydration, effect the distribution of fluids

Section 2

Question Answer
What is pyelonephritis?inflammation of the kidneys due to infection.
What is a result of pyelonephritis?the destruction or scarring of renal tissue
What is the most common type of kidney disease?pyelonephritis
What is the etiology of pyelonephritis?most commonly caused by E. Coli bacteria
What are the signs & symptoms of pyelonephritis?N&V, fever, chills, lumbar pain, dysuria, nocturia. These symptoms appear rapidly.
What is glomerulonephritis?most devastating and dangerous renal failure, caused by sudden onset of blood and protein in the urine accompanied by salt and water
how is uremia noticed to the embalmerstrong odor and yellow discoloration of the tissues
bright's diseaseantiquated name for kidney disease in general
what occurs at cellular level during glomeruleonephritisincrease in # of epithelial and endothelial cells, immune system cells increase, along with capillary walls swelling
what causes glomerulenephrosisstreptococcal throat infection, skin infection, hepatitis, diabetes

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the signs & symptoms of glomerulonephritis?hematuria, change in taste, distended jugulars, seizures and tremors
chronic glomerulenephritisthe glomeruleus becomes fibrous
microorganisms that cause UTI'sNeisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Escherichia coli,
pyelitisany inflammation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of the kidneys
pyelonephritisinflammatory disorder of the nephrons of the kidney caused by renal infections
how do microrgansisms invade the bodytravelling through the urethra to the bladder, then up the ureters to the kidneys
when does chronic pyelonephritis occurin anatomic abnormalities...uti's, obstructions, structual birth defects

Section 4

Question Answer
ureteritisinflammation of one or both of the tubes that connect the bladder to the kidney
What is necrosis?tissue death
when does ureteritis typically occurwhen an infection spreads from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
cystitisany inflmmation of the urinary bladder
symptoms of cystitisurgent need to urinate, increasing pain in the bladder,
cause of cystitisidiopathic cause
urehtritisinflammatory condition of the urethra
what is urethitis AKAurinary tract infection

Section 5

Question Answer
hydronephrosiscondition that occurs as part of a disease, when a kidney becomes distended due to a backup of urine
how is hydronephrosis treatedinserting a stint that allows for urination
symptosm of hydronephrosisab pain, naudea, vomiting, fever, uti, urgency/frequent urination
nephrolithiasiscondition in which one or more kidney stones are present in the urinary system
renal calculiterm for kidney stones
why do kidney stones formwhen the urine becomes overconcentrated with substances such as calcium, oxalates, phosphates, and carbonate

Section 6

Question Answer
polycystoc kidney diseaseinherited disorder characterized by grapelike clusters of cysts that replace renal tissue
why is the cysts present in the kidney badthe blood does not flow as well through the kidney as needed
dysplasiaabnormal tissue pattern occurs in the kidney that is arranged in specific pattern with one kidney
hypoplasiasmaller than normal size kidneys

Section 7

Question Answer
renal cell carcinomacharcterized by lack of warning signs, diverse clinical manifestations, and both resistance to chemotherapy and radiation,
where does renal cell carcinoma originateepithelium of the proximal renal tube
where does renal cell carcinoma usually metastisize toolung, soft tissues, bone, liver, and brain
symptoms of renal cell carcinomahematuria, ab mass, weight loss, fever, hypertension, night sweats
what is bladder cancer typically caused bytransitional cell carcinoma, which can appear in any part of the urinary tract including the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or urethra
how is bladder cancer categorizedlow/high grade, superficial or muscle invasive
signs of bladder cancerpainless hematuria

Section 8

Question Answer
renal failureloss of function of the kidneys
acute renal failureresults from a sudden drop in blood pressure brought on by trauma, complications in surgery, septic shock, hemorrhage, burns, and dehydration, blockage of renal artery
chronic renal failureresults in the accumulation of fluid and waste products in the body, causing uremia
uremiabuildup of nitrogenous waste products in blood, which may occur without symptoms
dialyisisprocess of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials and to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances
hemodialysistype of dialysis which works by circulating the blood thorugh special filters in a hemodialysis machine
artrovenous graftportions of a person great saphenous vein, cows carotid artery, and synthetic graft is used to suffice
arteriovenous fistulasurgcial joining of an artery and vein
four post mortem conditions result of urinary diseaseedema, uremia, dehydration, and odor
urotropinformed due to affinity of formaldehyde for nitrogen

Section 9

Question Answer
glomerulenephritismicrobial inflammation of the glomerulus and the nephron
pyelonephritisinflammation of the kidney and nephron
pyelitisinflammation of the renal pelvis of the kidney
nephrolithiasiskidney stones
urteritisinflmmation of the ureter
cystitsinflmmation of the urinary bladder
urethritisinflammation of the urethra

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