Pathology and medical specialties of the nervous system

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-25 17:18

Section 1

Question Answer
anesthesiologista physician who specialized in administering anesthetic agents before and during surgery
anesthetista medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician
neurologista physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system
neurosurgeona physician who specialized in surgery of the nervous system
psychiatristan MD who specialized in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness
psychologistevaluates and treats emotional problems and mental illness

Section 2

Question Answer
migraine headachecharacterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head; sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light or sound
warning auraa visual disturbance perceived by the patient preceding a migraine headache or epileptic seizure
cluster headachesintensely painful headaches that affect one side of the head and may be associated with tearing of the eyes and nasal congestion; named for their repeated occurrence in groups or clusters
encephalocele AKA craniocelecongenital HERNIATION OF BRAIN TISSUE through a gap in the skull
meningocelecongenital HERNIATION OF THE MENINGES through a defect in the skull or spinal column
hydrocephalusa condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain; it can occur at birth or develop later from obstructions related to meningitis, brain tumors, or other causes
meningiomaa common, slow-growing and usually benign tumor of the meninges
meningitis AKA infectious meningitisan inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord; characterized by intense headache and flu-like symptoms; caused by a viral or bacterial infection elsewhere in the body

Section 3

Question Answer
cognitiondescribes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning and memory
mild cognitive impairmenta memory disorder, usually associated with recently acquired information
dementiaa slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgement, often accompanied by personality changes
senile dementiadementia of the aged
vascular dementiaform of dementia caused by a stroke or other restriction of the flow of blood to the brain
encephalitisinflammation of the brain; can be caused by a viral infection
Reye's syndromea potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting and confusion; sometimes follows a viral illness in which the child was treated with asprin
tetanus AKA lockjawan acute and potentially fatal INFECTION of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria; typically acquired through a deep puncture wound
Tourette syndromea complex neurological disorder characterized by involuntary tics, grunts and compulsive utterances that sometimes include obscentities

Section 4

Question Answer
neurodegenerative diseasean umbrella term for disorders in which there is a progressive loss of the structure or functions of the neurons
Alzheimer's diseasea group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory and language; it is marked by progressive deterioration that affects both the memory and reasoning capabilities of an individual
Parkinson's diseasea chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, and a slow, shuffling gait caused by gradual progressive loss of control over movements due to inadequate levels of the neurtransmitter dopamine in the brain
amnesiaa memory disturbance characterized by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences; can be caused by a brain injury, illness or psychological disturbance
concussiona violent shaking up or jarring of the brain; may result in a temporary loss of awareness and function
cerebral contusionthe bruising of brain tissue as the result of a head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull
cranial hemotomaa collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain; named for their locations; may be caused by a major or even minor brain injury
epidural hemotomaa hemotoma located above the dura mater
subdural hemotomaa hemotoma located below the dura mater

Section 5

Question Answer
traumatic brain injurya blow to the head or penetrating head injury that damages the brain
coupdescribes a brain injury occurring with the skull near the point of impact
contrecoup AKA counterblowa brain injury that occurs beneath the skull opposite the area of impact
shaken baby syndromedescribes the results of a child being violently shaken by someone; it can cause brain injury, blindness, fractures, seizures, paralysis and death
levels of consciousnessdescribe the measurement of response to arousal and stimulus
altered levels of consciousnessrefer to a decrease in consciousness due to injury, disease, or substances such as medications, drugs or alcohol
consciousthe state of being awake, alert, aware, and responding appropriately
unconsciousa state of being unaware and being unable to respond to any stimuli, including pain
lethargya lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apathy
stuporan unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly despite vigorous, repeated attempts
syncope AKA faintingthe brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain
comaa profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, and the lack of speech
comatoserefers to a person who is in a coma
persistent vegetative statea type of coma in which the patient exhibits alternating sleep/wake cycles;but due to severe damage to certain areas of the brain, the person is unconscious even when appearing to be awake

Section 6

Question Answer
deliriuman acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, agitation and hallucinations; is usually caused by a treatable condition
deliriousa person suffering from delirium
brain tumoran abnormal growth located inside the skull
malignant brain tumordestroys brain tissue
benign brain tumordoes not invade the brain tissue;because this growth is surrounded by rigid bone, as the tumor enlarges, it can damage the brain tissue by placing pressure against the tissues and by increasing the intracranial pressure
intracranial pressurethe amount of pressure inside the skull
cerebrovascular accidenta stroke
strokea condition that is damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood vessel is either blocked or has ruptured.
ischemic strokethe most common type of stroke in older people, occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked by the narrowing or blockage of a carotid artery
ischemicpertaining to the disruption of the blood supply
thrombotic strokeoccurs when a blood clot forms in a carotid artery and blocks it
embolic strokeoccurs when a blood clot or other debris forms in a blood vessel somewhere other than the brain and travels through the bloodstream to lodge in the narrower brain arteries
transient ischemic attack AKA tiaa mini-stroke; the temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain; symptoms include numbness, blurred vision, dizziness or loss of balance; symptoms usually pass in less that an hour
transientpassing quickly
aphasiais often caused by brain damage associated with a stroke; the loss of the ability to speak, write, and/or comprehend the written or spoken work

Section 7

Question Answer
hemorrhagic stroke AKA bleedoccurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks; also occurs when an aneurysm within the brain ruptures;less common than ischemic strokes and is often fatal; it affects the area of the brain damaged by the leaking blood
aneurysma localized, weak, balloon-like enlargement of an artery wall