Pathology 2 - Final - Part 3

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-08-09 19:52


Question Answer
Bacterial infection involving the renal pelvis, tubules and interstitiumPyelonephritis
Infection of the kidney ( Pyelonephritis)Upper UTI
Infection of bladder (cystitis ) and or Urethra (urethritis)Lower UTI
Bacterial infection involving the renal pelvis, tubules and interstitium with local and systemic manifestationsAcute pyelonephritis
The most common cause of Acute pyelonephritis isE. coli
The intravesical portion of the ureter is not compressed during micturitionVesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)
The most common mechanism for lower and upper UTIs in femalesAscending Infection
Clinical findings include Spiking fever, chills ,malaise and vomiting, Exquisite flank pain, Increased frequency of micturition, Urgency and hematuria. Dysuria not presentAcute pyelonephritis
Lab findings include WBC casts, Pyuria, Bacteriuria, Hematuria, WBC count: leukocytosis , left shiftAcute pyelonephritis
Interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of tubules. Scarring occurs here in acute pyelonephritis with VURUpper and Lower Poles
Tubules contain eosinophilic material resembling thyroid colloid. This is calledThyroidization of Tubules
Episodic symptoms of urinary tract such as recurrent fever and flank pain. Some patients end up developing hypertension. Urinalysis shows leukocytesChronic Pyelonephritis
The most common cause of acute drug induced Tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN) is thisPenicillin (Methicillin)
Patients present with abrupt onset of acute renal failure (azotemia, oliguria, increased BUN) – intrarenal azotemia. Systemic signs of allergy: fever and rashacute drug induced Tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN)
Treatment for acute drug induced Tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN) is thisWithdraw Drug
Laboratory findings include BUN:Cr ratio ≤15. Eosinophilia and eosinophiliuria. Eosinophils and eosonophil casts seen in the urineacute drug induced Tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN)
This results from chronic over dosage of pain killer drugsAnalgesic Nephropathy
Phenacetin, Acetaminophen and aspirin are associated with this conditionAnalgesic Nephropathy
Liver metabolism of this drug produces free radicals which results in damage to the renal tubules in medullaAcetaminophen
This drug inhibits renal synthesis of PGE2, leaving AT II unopposedAspirin
Due to ischemic damage. Sloughing of renal papillae. Produces gross hematuria, proteinuria and colicky flank painRenal papillary necrosis
This is characterized by tubular and interstitial deposition of crystalline monosodium urate crystalsUrate nephropathy
Tubular casts of immunoglobulin Light chainsBence Jones Protein
Due to hypercalcemia. Metastatic calcification of BM of collecting tubules. Causes polyuria and renal failureNephrocalcinosis
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Question Answer
Dirty brown cast in urineRenal Tubular Necrosis
RBC casts in urineNephritic Syndrome
WBC casts in urineAcute Pyleonephritis
Fatty casts in urineNephrotic Syndrome
Eosinophil casts in urineacute drug induced Tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN)
Eosinophilic casts in urineMultiple Myeloma
Broad casts in urine

Exocrine Pancreas

Question Answer
Characterized by Inflammation, hemorrhage & necrosis of pancreas. Due to auto-digestion of pancreatic parenchyma by pancreatic enzymesAcute Pancreatitis
A stone in common bile duct or accessory ducts and alcohol abuse can lead to this Acute Pancreatitis
The necrosis seen within the pancreas in acute pancreatitis is thisLiquefactive Hemorrhagic Necrosis
The necrosis seen within the peri-pancreatic fat in acute pancreatitis is thisFat Necrosis
Patients present with Severe, epigastric pain with radiation to the back, Nausea and vomiting, abdominal gaurding, Periumblical and flank hemorrhage, Elevated serum lipase and amylase and HypocalcemiaAcute Pancreatitis
This complication of acute pancreatitis is due to peripancreatic hemorrhage and liquid sequestrationShock
This complication of acute pancreatitis is this formed by fibrous tissue surrounding digested pancreatic tissue and pancreatic enzymes around pancreas. Presents as an abdominal mass with persistently elevated serum amylasePancreatic Pseudocyst
This complication of acute pancreatitis is often due to E coli. Presents with abdominal pain, high fever and persistently elevated amylasePancreatic Abscess
The gold standard for pancreatic imagingCT Scan
This is characterized by Pancreatic cell loss, inflammation, fibrosis and calcification and pancreatic insufficiency leasding to steatorrhea, fat soluble vitamin deficiency and diabetes mellitusChronic Pancreatitis
The most common cause of chronic pancreatitis in adults is thisAlcohol
The most common cause of chronic pancreatitis in children is thisCystic Fibrosis
Clinical findings include epigastric abdominal pain that radiates to back, Pancreatic insufficiency, Secondary diabetes mellitus and increased risk of pancreatic carcinomaChronic Pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of development of this cancerAdenocarcinoma of Pancreas
Adenocarcinoma arising from epithelium of the pancreatic ductsAdenocarcinoma of Pancreas
Pancreatic carcinoma is associated with a mutation in this geneK-RAS
The most common site in the pancreas for a cancer to arise from is thereHead of Pancreas
Obstructive Jaundice, Light colored stool and Palpable gall bladder are signs that a pancreatic adenocarcinoma has done thisObstructed the Common Bile Duct
The tumor marker for cancer of pancreas is thisCA 19-9
Pancreas forms a ring around the duodenum. This is a risk of duodenal obstructionAnnular Pancreas


Question Answer
Failure to form or early destruction of extrahepatic biliary tree which leads to biliary obstruction within the first 3 months of life. Presents with obstructive jaundice and progresses to cirrhosisBiliary Atresia
Bile is supersaturated with cholesterol or bilirubin is risk for development of thisCholelithiasis
Grayish-yellow in color stonesCholesterol Stones
Jet black in color stonesHemolytic Anemia
Brown in color stonesBile Duct Infection
Supersaturation of bile with cholesterol. Decreased bile salts and lecithinCholesterol stones
Age (40s), estrogen ( female gender, obesity, multiple pregnancies and oral contraceptives). Rapid weight loss, use of lipid lowering drugs. Native American ethnicity. Crohns disease and cirrhosisRisk Factors for Cholelithiasis
Gallstone that is usually radiolucentCholesterol Stone
Gallstone that is usually radio-opaqueBilirubin Stone
Clinical findings include majority of patients remain asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients present with spasmodic pain (biliary colic) in right upper quadrant of abdomen. Pain due to obstruction of bile ductCholelithiasis
The most common complication of gall stones is thisCholecystitis
Infection with this parasite increases the risk for cholangiocarcinomaClonorchis sinensis (Chinese Liver Fluke)
The most common cause of cholangiocarcinoma in the Western world is thisPrimary Sclerosing Choleangitis

Liver and Biliary Tract

Question Answer
Is the yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membraneJaundice
Jaundice is first noticed hereSclera
Protoporphyrin from heme is converted into thisUnconjugated Bilirubin
This protein carries UCB to the liverAlbumin
This enzyme in the hepatocytes conjugates bilirubinUridine Glucuronide Transferase
Conjugated bilirubin is transferred to here to form bileBile Canaliculi
This is also partially reabsorbed into the blood and filtered by kidney, making the urine yellowUrobilinogen
This produces the brown color of stoolUrobilin
This is due to an increase in UCB and/ or CBJaundice
The second most common cause jaundice worldwide seen when a person has fasted. There is a mild deficiency of UGT which causes a mild increase of UCBGilbert's Syndrome