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Pathology 2 - Block 1 - Part 3

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davidwurbel7's version from 2016-06-01 18:59

Venous and Lymphatic Disorders

Question Answer
An enlarged and tortuous superficial vein. Results from chronic increased intraluminal pressure and incompetent valvesVaricose Vein
Enlarged and tortuous superficial vein in the superficial saphenous veinsVaricose Vein
Enlarged and tortuous superficial vein in the distal esophagusEsophageal Varices
Esophageal varices is suggestive of this conditionPortal Hypertension
Enlarged and tortuous superficial vein in the anorectal regionHemorrhoid
Enlarged and tortuous superficial vein in the left scrotal sacVaricocele
Venous blood flow in this part of the leg moves from superficial veins to deep veinsUpper Leg
Venous blood flow in this part of the leg moves from the deep veins to the superficial veinsLower Leg
Most common type of varicosity seen in clinical practice. Main factor: inherited structural weakness of valves. Contributing factors include Age: incidence increases with age, Sex: female gender, Occupations requiring long hours of standing and Pregnancy and Obesity: increased intra-abdominal pressureSuperficial Saphenous Vein Varicosities
Clinical features include diffuse aching, fullness/tightness. Aggravated by prolonged standing (end of day). Visible long, dilated and tortuous veins along thigh and legsSuperficial Saphenous Vein Varicosities
Complications of this condition include recurrent superficial thrombophlebitis, Ulceration, eczema and hyperpigmentationSuperficial Saphenous Vein Varicosities
This is not a possible complication of superficial saphenous vein varicositiesEmbolism
A patient under 50 years old with anorectal bleeding the first diagnosis should be thisHemorrhoids
A patient 50 years or older with anorectal bleeding the first diagnosis should be this until proven otherwiseColorectal Cancer
The vein that is most commonly involved in esophageal varices is this veinLeft Gastric Vein
Thrombosis of a vein without inflammation usually caused by stasis of blood flow and hypercoagulability. Thrombi propagate in the direction of blood flowPhlebothrombosis
The most common cause of Phlebothrombosis is thisBed Rest
Hypercoagulability due to an increase in production of factor V, factor VIII and fibrinogen caused by use of thisOral Contraceptive Pills
Hypercoagulability due to a deficiency of this anticoagulation factorAntithrombin III
Clinical findings include swelling , bluish discoloration of the lower leg as well as pain on compression of calf or dorsiflexion of foot
Loss of greater than 3.5 g per day of protein in the urineNephrotic Syndrome
Loss of less of than 3.5 g per day of protein in the urineNephritic Syndrome
A patient with renal syndrome is susceptible to hypercoagulability due to loss of anticoagulation factor protein in the urineNephrotic Syndrome
The most serious complication of DVTPulmonary Thromboemblism
Pulmonary Thromboemblism usually originate from this veinFemoral Vein
Complication of DVT includes this condition in which there is orange discoloration (hemosiderin) around the ankles caused by rupture of the penetrating branchesStasis Dermatitis
Emergency treatment of DVT is thisHeparin
Prophylactic treatment for a patient at risk for venous thrombiWarfarin
Prophylactic treatment for a patient at risk for arterial thrombiAspirin
Thrombosis plus pain and tenderness along the course of superficial veinThrombophlebitis
Intravenous canulation of veins, Intravenous drug abuse (infection – S.aureus) and Carcinoma of pancreatic head due to release of thrombogenic substances by the cancer are possible causes of thisThrombophlebitis
Clinical findings include tender and palpable vein. Redness and edema of the overlying skinThrombophlebitis
This condition is due to extrinsic compression of the SVC from a primary lung cancer usually a small cell carcinoma of lung or Mediastinal lymphomaSuperior Vena Cava Syndrome
Clinical findings include puffiness and blue to purple discoloration of the face, arms, and shoulders; retinal hemorrhages and stroke. Distended jugular veinsSuperior Vena Cava Syndrome
This condition is due to compression of the IVC by neoplasm due to growth of certain tumors within IVC such as renal cell carcinoma or hepatic cell carcinomaInferior Vena Cava Syndrome
Clinical findings include marked edema of legs and distension of veins of abdomenInferior Vena Cava Syndrome
This condition compression of the neurovascular compartment in the neck caused by cervical rib, Spastic anterior scalene muscle. Common among weight liftersThoracic Outlet Syndrome
Clinical findings of this include vascular sign: arm falls asleep and nerve root sign such as numbness and paresthesiaThoracic Outlet Syndrome
Infection and inflammation in lymphatic vessel draining a focus of infection. Frequently results from cellulites caused by Streptococcus pyogenesAcute Lymphangitis
Transport of infectious material to regional lymph nodes that causes swelling and tenderness is called thisAcute Lymphadenitis
Painful subcutaneous red streaks along the involved lymph channels that is often accompanied by painful regional lymphnodes
A painless lymphnopathy could be suggestive of thisPrimary Cancer or Metastatic Cancer
A painful lymphnopathy could be suggestive of thisLocal Infection
This condition is characterized by accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the affected site due to lymphatic obstructionLymphedema
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Cardiac Pathology

Question Answer
An Increase in weight or size due to either hypertrophy of myocardium or dilation of chambersCardiomegaly
The amount of blood in the heart during diastolePreload
Preload is dependent on this to right side of heartVenous Return
The resistance against which the ventricle must contract when ejecting blood during systoleAfterload
A compensatory change that the heart undergoes when subjected to an increased workloadVentricular Hypertrophy
Increased workload can occur in association with Systemic hypertension, Valvular stenosis and Valvular insufficiency can lead to thisVentricular Hypertrophy
This is due to contraction against an increased resistance. Produces thickening of ventricular wallConcentric Ventricular Hypertrophy
Essential hypertension and Aortic stenosis are causes of thisConcentric Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
Pulmonary hypertension and Pulmonary artery stenosis are causes of thisConcentric Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
This is due to volume overload causing dilatation and hypertrophy of ventricular wallEccentric Ventricular Hypertrophy
Mitral valve or aortic valve regurgitation are causes of thisEccentric Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
Tricuspid or pulmonary valve regurgitation are causes of thisEccentric Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
Correlates with atrial contraction in late diastole caused by blood entering a noncompliant ventricleS4 Heart Sound
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Heart Failure

Question Answer
A complex clinical syndrome that results from almost any cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with blood or eject bloodHeart Failure
Heart unable to maintain adequate cardiac output to meet demandForward Heart Failure
Heart unable to accommodate venous returnBackward Heart Failure
Failure involves Left VentricleLeft-sided Heart Failure
Failure involves Right VentricleRight-sided Heart Failure
Congestive heart failureBiventricular Heart Failure
The output for the heart is normal to high but is not able to meet metabolic demand of the bodyHigh Output Heart Failure
Left side of heart cannot eject blood into the aortaLeft-sided Heart Failure
This condition is a complication of left-sided Heart FailurePulmonary Edema
This is characterized by a low ejection fraction (EF) (<40%)Systolic Dysfunction
This is characterized by normal to high ejection fraction (EF) (stiff left ventricle) and an S4 gallop due to increased resistance to filling in late diastole. There is an increase in left atrial pressureDiastolic Dysfunction
The mechanism of left-sided heart failure because of myocardial infarction, Myocardial fibrosis, myocarditis (flabby myocardium), cardiomyopathy is due to thisDecreased Ventricular Contraction
The mechanism of left-sided heart failure because of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and Infiltration of myocardium by amyloid, iron or glycogen is due to thisNoncompliant Ventricle
The mechanism of left-sided heart failure because of increased afterload - systemic hypertension or increased preload - mitral regurgitation is due to thisIncreased Workload
Alveolar macrophages laden with hemosiderinHeart Failure Cell
Clinical findings include Bibasilar inspiratory crackels. Shortness of breath on exertion. Patients cannot take a full inspiration. Productive cough that is clear/rush color. Orthopnea. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Left sided S3 heart soundMitral valve regurgitation
Dramatic form of breathlessness characterized by choking sensation at night due to increased venous return to the failed left side of heart. Blood backs up in lungs worsening pulmonary edema. Relived by standing or placing a pillow under the headParoxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
Caused by blood entering a volume overloaded left ventricle. Intensity of the heart sound increases with expirationS3 Heart Sound
S3 heart sound that increases during expirationLeft-sided S3 Heart Sound
S3 heart sound that increases in intensity during inspirationRight-sided S3 Heart Sound
The heart cannot pump blood from the venous system to the lungs. Increase in venous blood leading to painful hepatomegaly, congestive splenomegaly. The increase in venous blood also causes an increase in hydrostatic pressure leading to dependent pitting edema + ascitesRight-sided Heart Failure
High-output heart failure due to an increase in stroke volume can be caused byHyperthyroidism
High-output heart failure due to decrease in blood viscosity can be caused bySevere Anemia
High-output heart failure due to vasodilation of peripheral resistance arterioles with increases venous return to the heartThiamine Deficiency (beriberi), Early Phase of Endotoxic Shock
High-output heart failure due abnormal communications between arteries and veins that bypasses the microcirculationArteriovenous Fistula
Communications between arteries and veins that bypasses the microcirculation resulting in an increase venous return to the heartArteriovenous Fistula
The most cause of arteriovenous fistula is thisHealing of Knife Trauma
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