Pathology 1 - Block 2 - Part 2

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-02-22 20:03


Question Answer
Two basic components in this are proliferating neoplastic cells (parenchyma) and supporting tissue (stroma)Tumor
Adolescent, young adults, male. Intra abdominal tumor. Highly aggressive, complete resection not possible due to infiltration of abdominal structures. Prognosis ˂20%Desmoplastic Round Cell Tumor
Fibroma, chondroma, osteoma are examples of this type of tumorBenign Mesenchymal Tumor
Adenoma, papilloma, cystadenoma are examples of this type of tumorBenign Epithelial Tumors
Tumor composed of solid glandular tissue. Consists of closely arranged glandular structuresAdenoma
Adenomas exhibiting cystic spaces into which papillary ingrowths of neoplastic epithelium protrudeCystadenoma
Tumor composed of fibrous tissueFibroma
Tumor composed of a mix of fibrous tissue and glandular tissuesFibroadenoma
Malignant tumors arising from mesenchymal tissuesSarcoma
Malignant tumors arising from epithelial tissueCarcinoma
Malignant tumor involving lymphoid cells. On section the enlarged lymph node shows homogenous white color. Histopathology is definite for making a diagnosisLymphoma
Malignancy of blood cells derived from bone marrow. Sometimes there can be difficulty in differentiating one from the otherLeukemia
Benign admixture of epithelial and stromal elements. Arise from either myoepithelial/ductal reserve cell origin. Arises frequently from parotid gland. Also called a mixed tumorPleomorphic Adenoma
Tumors representing more than one germ layerTeratoma
Benign teratoma containing fully differentiated cellsMature Teratoma
Malignant teratoma containing embryonal tissue (non-differentiated cells)Immature Teratoma
Teratoma arising from only one germ layerMonodermal Teratoma
Ectopic rests of normal tissue. Example: pancreatic tissue in stomach wall, gastric mucosa in Meckel diverticulum'sChoristoma
Mass of disorganized, but mature specialized cells or tissue indigenous to that site. tumor like malformation. Tissues present are those specific to the part from which arises 2) Growth is coordinated with that of the surrounding tissues (growth not seen after adolesence)Hamartoma
Malignant tumor arising from kidneyWilms tumor
Malignant tumor arising mostly from AdrenalsNeuroblastoma
Malignant tumor arising from 4th ventricleMedulloblastoma
Malignant tumor arising from eyeRetinoblastoma
Malignant tumor arising from liverHepatoblastoma
Group includes rhabdomyosarcomaEmbryonic sarcoma
Great majority of these silent lesions spontaneously regress, leaving only a focus of fibrosis or calcification in the adultEmbryonic Tumors
This is a characteristic of all embryonic tumorsRound Blue Small Cell Tumors
Arise from the neural crest cells and show different levels of differentiation. since these tumors derive from the sympathetic nervous system, catecholamines and their metabolites will be produced at increased levelsNeuroblastoma
Refers to the extent to which neoplastic cells resemble comparable normal cells on - morphology and functionDifferentiation
Poorly differentiated can also be calledAnaplastic
Both morphological similarity and functional similarity characteristics must be met in order for a tumor to be classified as thisWell Differentiated
Are mostly well differentiated and does not spread (no metastasis)Benign Tumors
Can range from well differentiated to poorly differentiatedMalignant Tumors
Is a malignant bone tumor characterized by primitive round cells without obvious differentiation. Usually arise in the diaphysis of long tubular bones, especially the femur and the flat bones of the pelvis. Characteristic periosteal reaction produces layers of reactive bone deposited in an onion-skin fashionEwing’s Sarcoma
A (11;22) (q24;q12) translocation generating in-frame fusion of the EWS gene on chromosome 22 to the FLI1 geneEwing’s Sarcoma


Malignant Features
Question Answer
Variation in size and shape of the cells / nucleiPleomorphism
Cells show pleomorphismMalignant Tumor
Cells show no pleomorphismBenign Tumor
Show nuclear dense staining of nuclei. This feature alone does not distinguish malignant from benignHyperchromatism
Normal ranges from 1:4 to 1:6N:C Ratio
Ratio approaches almost to 1:1. Best observed in aspiration cytology studyN:C Ratio
Cells show an N:C ratio 1:4 to 1:6Benign Tumor
Cells show an N:C ratio 1:1Malignant Tumor
Cells show abnormal/bizarre mitosis tripolar, quadripolar, stellateMalignant Tumor
Cells show normal bipolar spindle typeBenign Tumor
Can only be seen in epithelial lined structuresPolarity
Cell orientation is disordered resulting in a loss of polarityMalignant Tumor
Cell orientation is ordered and polarity is maintainedBenign Tumor
Tumor cells having 2 or more nuclei. More common in sarcomasTumor Giant Cells
This is seen in rapidly growing tumors. Ischemic areas develop, mostly in central areasTumor Necrosis
Disordered growth seen in epithelial lined structures often occurs in metaplastic epitheliumDysplasia
Dysplasia when entire thickness of the epithelium is involved. The basement membrane remains intactCarcinoma In Situ
Loss of polarity, atypical cellular/nuclear features limited to lower one-third of the epithelial thickness, mitosis Mild Dysplasia
Loss of polarity, atypical cellular/nuclear features limited to lower and middle one-third of the epithelial thickness, mitosisModerate Dysplasia
Loss of polarity, atypical cellular/nuclear features throughout the full of the epithelial thickness, mitosisCarcinoma In Situ (Severe Dysplasia)


Biology of Tumor Growth
Question Answer
1. Malignant change in the target cell (transformation). 2. Growth of the transformed cells. 3. Local invasion. 4. Distant metastasesPhases of Tumor Growth
The proportion of cells within the tumor population that are in the proliferative poolGrowth Fraction
Most anti cancer drugs act on cells that are in this phase of the cell cycleMitotic Phase
Leukemias, lymphomas, small cell carcinoma of lung are examples of cancers with what type of growth fractionHigh Growth Fraction
Carcinoma colon, carcinoma breast are examples of cancers with what type of growth fractionLow Growth Fraction


Question Answer
Benign tumor that arise from smooth muscle in the uterus. They are hormonal dependentLeiomyoma
Benign tumor that does not form a capsuleHemangioma
Tumor implants discontinuous with the primary tumorMetastases
Gliomas and basal cell carcinomas are malignant tumors that are not know to do whatMetastases
malignant cells exfoliate from surface and implant & invade tissue in body cavity. Examples: pleural, pericardial, joint spaceSeeding
Build up of mucin within the peritoneal cavity due to adenocarcinoma of ovary / appendixPseudomyxoma Peritonei
Pseudomyxoma Peritonei is due to seeding of the peritoneal cavity by this type of tumorMucin-Producing Adenocarcinoma
A generally pediatric cancer but can be seen in adults in which cancer cell get into the CSFGlioblastoma
A generally pediatric cancer in which cancer cells can penetrate the blood brain barrierAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Common pathway for initial spread for carcinomas and sarcomas pattern of lymph node involvement follows the natural routes of lymphatic drainageLymphatic Spread
Is the first lymph node in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymph flow from the primary tumorSentinel Lymph Node
Enlargement of lymph nodes due to the presence of cancer cells within the lymph nodeMetastatic Lymph Node
Enlargement of lymph nodes due to drainage of tumor cell debris or tumor antigen, or bothReactive Hyperplasia Lymph Node
Spread seen usually with carcinomas and sarcomas. Veins are commonly involved. Liver and lungs are most frequently involvedHematogenous Spread
Carcinoma thyroid and prostate can spread to this placeVertebra
Gastric tumors giving rise to tumor deposits on surface of ovaries (bilateral)Krukenberg Tumor
Pancreas, prostate, salivary gland malignancies are examples of malignancies that can invade here that cause constant pain but this is not a route of spreadPerineural Invasion
Superior sulcus tumors that arise in the apex of the lung and invade adjacent structures producing this syndrome of symptoms - Horner's syndrome, shoulder and/or arm pain, and weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the handPancoast's Syndrome
Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Helicobacter pylori gastritis, viral hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis are examples of thisNonhereditary Predisposition Conditions
Pernicious anemia with antibodies attacking the parietal cells leading reduction in the HCl production in the stomach. The destruction of parietal cell leads to thisAtrophic Gastritis
Solar keratosis of skin can lead to this in sun exposed areasSquamous Cell Carcinoma
Leukoplakia of the oral cavity usually seen in patients with a history of chewing tobaccoSquamous Cell Carcinoma
Chronic irritation of sinus orifice usually due to osteomyelitisSquamous Cell Carcinoma
Barrett’s esophagus can lead to thisAdenocarcinoma Esophagus
Dysplastic nevus can lead to thisMalignant Melanoma
Myelodysplastic syndrome can give rise to thisAML
Regenerative nodules in cirrhosis can give rise to thisHepatocellular Carcinoma
Villous adenoma rectum can give rise to thisAdenocarcinoma
Complete hydatidiform mole can give rise to thisChoriocarcinoma
Endometrial hyperplasia can give rise to thisAdenocarcinoma Endometrium
Scar tissue in lung(sometimes from TB) can give rise to thisAdenocarcinoma
Retinoblastoma, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, Hereditary Non Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC), BRCA1 & BRCA2 (Breast and Ovarian Cancer), Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP), Ataxia Telangiectasia, Bloom Syndrome, Fanconi Syndrome are examples of these type of cancersFamilial Cancers

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