Pathology 1 - Block 1 - Part 1

davidwurbel7's version from 2016-04-12 18:53

Cell Injury 1

Question Answer
Increase in size of cells, resulting in an increase in size of the organ. No new cells, but larger cellsHypertrophy
Increase in the transverse diameter of the myocyteHypertrophy
(PI3K)/AKT pathway and G-protein–coupled receptors pathway are activated by the presence ofTGF-β
This pathway activated by TGF-β is thought to be more important in pathologic hypertrophyG-protein–coupled receptors pathway
Mechanism of hypertrophy is switch of contractile proteins from adult forms toFetal or Neonatal Forms
In muscular hypertrophy, α isoform of myosin heavy chain is replaced by thisβ Isoform
Reactivation of the secretion of this by all four chambers which helps in salt secretion by kidney, therefore the blood volume decreasesANF
Question Answer
Increase in number of cells in an organ or tissueHyperplasia
Physiologic hyperplasia in which the proliferation of glandular epithelium of female breast at puberty, pregnancyHormonal Hyperplasia
Physiologic hyperplasia in which regeneration of liver following partial hepatectomyCompensatory Hyperplasia
Excessive hormonal stimulation or growth factors acting on target cellsPathologic Hyperplasia
A high gland to stoma ratio along with budding of glandsGlandular Pathologic Hyperplasia
Question Answer
Results from decrease in cell size and numberAtrophy
A decreased workload, loss of innervation, diminished blood supply, inadequate nutrition, loss of endocrine stimulation, and pressure are causes of thisAtrophy
A decreased protein synthesis (reduced metabolic activity) or increased protein degradation are the mechanisms by which this occursAtrophy
Degradation of proteins is carried out by this pathway, which attaches to the peptide ubiquitin to cellular protein and target these for proteins for degradation in proteasomesUbiquitin-Proteasome Pathway
A mechanism of atrophy considered to be “self eating”Autophagy
This mechanism of a cell reduces the nutritional requirements of the cellsAutophagy
Cellular debris that remains within the autophagic vacuoles that resists digestionLipofuscin Granules
Question Answer
Reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell typeMetaplasia
Metaplasia seen in the bronchial mucosal lining in chronic smokers is this type of metaplasiaColumnar to Squamous Metaplasia
A patient with a tracheostomy will show this metaplasiaColumnar to Squamous Metaplasia
Metaplasia seen in the distal end of esophagus usually due to GERDSquamous to Columnar Metaplasia
Lower end of esophagus (normally lined by squamous epithelium) is replaced by intestinal like columnar epithelium following gastric refluxBarrett Esophagus
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is unable to prevent the reflux of acidic gastric contents into the lower esophagusGERD
Metaplasia seen in pylorus and antrum of the stomach usually in the presence of Helicobacter pylori and is characterized histologically by the presence of goblet cellsIntestinal Metaplasia
Spiral-shaped or curved bacilli seen on microscopy attached to surface foveolar cells. Usually seen in patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers or chronic gastritisHelicobacter pylori Gastritis
Helicobacter pylori produces this which neutralizes the stomach acidAmmonia
Metaplasia seen in the bladder due to chronic inflammation of urinary bladder mucosa due to infection by Schistosoma hematobiumTransitional Epithelium to Squamous Metaplasia
Transitional Epithelium to Squamous Metaplasia seen in the bladder is due to infection by this parasiteSchistosoma hematobium
Metaplasia seen in which there is the formation of cartilage, bone, or adipose tissue in tissues which normally does not possess themConnective Tissue Metaplasia
Condition seen in which there is extra skeletal ossification. The ossification is usually seen following intramuscular hemorrhage (hematoma), 4 to 7 weeks following injury. Common sites include pectoralis major, biceps, thigh musclesMyositis Ossificans
This vitamin plays a role in the orderly differentiation of epitheliumVitamin A
Metaplasia seen in the eye that develops into keratomalaciaVitamin A Deficiency Metaplasia
A squamous metaplasia condition seen in the cornea due to vitamin A deficiencyKeratomalacia
A mechanism of metaplasia is the reprogramming of these cells which produce a different type of cell instead of the native cell typeStem Cells

Cell Injury 2

Question Answer
This is the first manifestation of almost all forms of injury to cellsCellular Swelling
When many cells are affected by this, it produces pallor, increased turgor, and increased weight of the organCellular Swelling
On microscopy, the presence of small clear vacuoles in cytoplasm is an indication of thisReversible Cell Injury
Ultrastructural changes including plasma membrane alterations: blebbing, blunting, swelling of RER, and loss of microvilli, Mitochondrial swelling, dilation of ER and nuclear alterations are indications of thisReversible Cell Injury
Amorphous densities in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes and loss of membrane permeability indicates thisIrreversible Cell Injury
Signs of this are eosinophilic staining, dead cells may be replaced by large, whorled phospholipid masses called myelin figuresNecrosis
These are derived from damaged cell membranes and become whorled phospholipid massesMyelin Figures
This is characterized by cell shrinkage, formation of apoptotic bodies which are phagocytosed by macrophages. There is no associated inflammationApoptosis
Characterized by cell shrinkage. The formation of apoptotic bodies which are phagocytosed by macrophages. No associated inflammationApoptosis
Space left by a cell undergoing apoptosis due the cell shrinkageRetraction Space
Inadequate oxygenation of tissuesHypoxia
Decreased O2 carrying capacity in bloodAnemia
Lack of blood flow to an organIschemia
Lack of oxygen in the bloodHypoxemia
Arterial obstruction - Thrombosis, Embolism, Venous, and Peripheral artery disease are potential causes of thisIschemia
Risk associated with smokers. Young men. Example of peripheral artery disease. Non-atherosclerotic. Segmental vascular inflammation leading to vaso occlusion. Small and medium sized arteries and veins of both upper and lower limbsBuerger disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans)
Patient has cherry red discoloration of skin and blood, headache, dyspneaCarbon Monoxide Poisoning
Iron of hemoglobin is seen in oxidized state (Fe3+). This results in poor availability of 02 to tissuesMethemoglobinemia
Chocolate color bloodMethemoglobinemia
Methemoglobinemia is treated by IV administration ofMethylene Blue
Area shared between anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries and the area shared between superior and inferior mesenteric arteries are examples of thisWatershed Area
Watershed areas, Subendocardial tissue, Renal cortex and medulla and the Purkinje cells in cerebellum are susceptible to thisHypoxia
Carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen poisoning can cause damage to this organLiver


Mechanism of Cell Injury
Question Answer
Increases in cytosolic calcium, oxidative stress, activation of phospholipase A2, proteases, endonucleases, ATPases will damage thisMitochondria
Ca+2 entering into the mitochondria leads to the formation of thisMitochondrial Permeability Transition Pores
Mitochondrial permeability transition pores allows this to leak out into the cytosol causing apoptosisCytochrome c
Super oxide (O2-), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Hydroxyl radical (-OH) are examples of theseOxygen-Derived Free Radicals
Enzyme in the liver that detoxifies drugsCytochrome p-450


Question Answer
Carbon tetrachloride, cyanide and UV rays will cause this type of free radical injuryChemical and Radiation Injury
An overdose of Acetaminophen will cause this type of free radical injuryLiver Necrosis by Drugs
The use of thrombolytic after 6 hours post-MI will cause this type of free radical injuryIschemia-Reperfusion Injury
Placing a premature baby (Under 34 weeks) in a 100% O2 environment may lead to detachment of the retina due formation and destruction of new blood vessels in the retina will cause this type of free radical injuryRetinopathy of Prematurity
A patient with Beta-thalassemia being treated with whole blood transfusions may lead to this free radical injuryIron Overload
Vitamins A, C, E remove free radicals because they areAntioxidants
Iron and copper binds to oxygen free radicals when they are in small amountTrace Element Elimination
As a result of ATP depletion, Ca++ mediated activation of phospholipases, bacterial toxins, viral proteins which causes thisDefective Membrane Permeability
Unesterified free fatty acids, acyl carnitine, and lysophospholipids are products of the break down of this by phospholipasePhospholipid
The intermediate filament found in epithelial cellCytokeratin
The presence of Mallory bodies is indictive of damage to theseCytokeratin Filaments
The presence of Mallory bodies in hepatocytes is indictive of thisAlcoholic Hepatitis
A rare, inherited disease characterized by bronchiectasis, sinusitis, situs inversus (triad). Presents usually in newborns: respiratory distress, pneumonia, ear infectionKartagener's Syndrome
Pathogenesis of this disease is the disorganization of microtubules leading to immobilization of cilia in respiratory tract and, inhibition of sperm motility in males and inhibition of cilia motility in the Fallopian tube in femalesKartagener's Syndrome

Cell Injury 3

Question Answer
The shrinking of the nucleusPyknosis
The fragmentation of the nucleusKaryorrhexis
The complete lysis of the nucleusKaryolysis
Necrosis characterized by preservation of cellular outlinesCoagulation Necrosis
The denaturation of enzymes and proteins is this type of necrosisCoagulation Necrosis
Coagulation necrosis follows cell death due to thisHypoxia
Characterized by the preservation of the cell outlines “tombstone” appearance and increased eosinophiliaCoagulation Necrosis
Focal bacterial or fungal infection and hypoxic cell death in CNS undergo this type of necrosisLiquefactive Necrosis
Pathogenesis of this necrosis is the transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass due to lysosomal enzymes released by necrotic cells, neutrophils (infective)Liquefactive Necrosis
Usually applied to a limb that has lost its blood supplyDry Gangrenous Necrosis
Bacterial infection when superimposed by coagulative necrosis is modified by liquefactive action of bacteriaWet Gangrenous Necrosis
Examples of this includes inguinal hernia, superior mesenteric artery infarct in diabetes myelitis, volvulus and intussusceptionWet Gangrenous Necrosis
Distinctive form of coagulative necrosis seen in Tuberculosis formation of caseating granulomas that is cheesy whiteCaseous Necrosis
(Insert 18-50)
Question Answer
Abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within parenchymal cells liver, heart and muscleFatty Change
This stain is used for fatty changeOil Red O Stain
Excess production of NADH upsets the NAD/NADH ratio. This inhibits their oxidation, and causes increased estrification of fatty acids to form triacylglycerolAlcoholic Fatty Liver
Toxins (alcohol), Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), protein malnutrition, diabetes mellitus and anoxia can lead to this in the liverFatty Liver
Prolonged moderate hypoxia - anemia. Gross findings in heart creates a tiger striping effect. It can also be seen in myocarditis due to diphtheriaCardiac Fatty Change
Associated with Rh incompatibility in newborns fat soluble unconjugated bilirubin deposits in basal ganglia nuclei of brainKernicterus
Kernicterus is the deposit of this in the basal ganglia nuclei of the brainUnconjugated Bilirubin
Appears as eosinophilic droplets, vacuoles or aggregates in cytoplasm. reabsorption droplets in proximal renal tubules: seen in renal diseases. Immunoglobulin accumulation in plasma cell: Russell bodies. Defects in protein folding: amyloidosisProtein Accumulations
Plasma cells that have so much antibody protein in the cytoplasm that they stain differently and may no longer have the nucleus be visibleRussell Bodies
Alteration within cells or in extracellular spaces. produced by a variety of alterations and does not represent a specific pattern of accumulation. Intracellular: includes protein droplet, Russell body, alcoholic hyaline (Mallory body). Extracellular: includes old scars, long standing hypertensionHyaline Change
There is an accumulation of this seen in cells with Von Grierke’s: deficiency of glucose 6 phosphataseGlycogen
The glycogen accumulation in cells is seen using this stainPeriodic Acid Schiff (PAS)
Carbon in air pollution leads to anthracosis - black discoloration of lungs. In coal workers - pneumoconiosisExogenous Pigments
Black discoloration of the lungAnthracosis
Mixture of coal and silica in air breathed in can lead to this condition in minersPneumoconiosis
Endogenous pigment composed of polymers of lipids and phospholipids complexed with protein that is signs of wear and tear and agingLipofuscin
Lipofuscin pigmentation must be differentiated from this pigment which presence is pathologicalHemosiderin
Endogenous pigment that is hemoglobin derived, golden yellow to brown in color. When there is a local or systemic excess of iron, ferritin forms granulesHemosiderin
This stain is used to differentiate hemosiderin and lipofuscinPrussian Blue
Endogenous, brown-black, pigment formed. When the enzyme tyrosinase catalyzes the oxidation of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine in melanocyteMelanin
The abnormal tissue deposition of calcium salts, together with smaller amounts of iron, magnesium, and other mineral saltsPathological Calcification
Occurs locally in dying tissues in coagulative, caseous, or liquefactive type, and in foci of enzymatic necrosis of fat. It is present in the atheromas of advanced atherosclerosis. Commonly develops in aging or damaged heart valves. Normal serum levels of calciumDystrophic Calcification
Dystrophic calcification can usually be seen on x-ray in patients that have been exposed to this disease long agoTuberculosis
Deposition of calcium salts in otherwise normal tissues always results from hypercalcemia secondary to some disturbance in calcium metabolismMetastatic Calcification
Laminar calcium deposits in tissues which is subjective of carcinomaPsammoma Bodies
Psammoma bodies present in the brain on MRI is suggestive of thisMeningioma
Psammoma bodies present in the thyroid on imaging (ultrasound) is suggestive of thisPapillary Carcinoma Thyroid
Psammoma bodies present in the ovary on imaging (ultrasound) is suggestive of thisPapillary Carcinoma Ovary