Pathologies of the respiratory system

mwhyett's version from 2017-05-19 16:09


Question Answer
What is a pneuomothorax?A build up of air in the pleural space.
What are common symptoms of a pneumothorax?Chest pain and dyspnoea.
How many types of pneumothoraces are there?3; spontaneous primary, spontaneous secondary, and traumatic.
What is the most common pneumothorax seen in young males?Primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
In what type of patients are primary spontaneous pneumothoraces seen?Thin males, aged 18-24 years.
What is the difference between primary pneumothoraces and secondary pneumothoraces?Primary occurs in the absence of lung disease, and secondary occurs in the presence of lung disease.
What type of pneumothoraces are due to trauma?Traumatic pneumothoraces, NOT secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces.
What is a tension pneumothorax?A complicated pneumothorax in which air enters the pleural cavity, but cannot escape due to the presence of a one way valve.
What can be seen on an image of a tension pneumothorax?Mediastinal shift.
What alternative projection can be done on a patient with a pneumothorax?An expiration film.
What projection is done on patients who are unable to sit or stand?A lateral decubitus film.
What sign on ultrasound indicates a pneumothorax?An absence of the gliding lung sign.
What will you see on a CT scan of a pneumothorax?The black pleural cavity and the deflated lung.
What is done to resolve a tension pneumothorax?A tube thoracostomy.
Where is a tube thoracostomy placed?Within the triangle of safety at the 4/5th intercostal space.
What is a pleural effusion?A build up of excess fluid in the pleural cavity.
What is a transudate pleural effusion associated with?Hypertension, heart failure, and ascites.
What is an exudate pleural effusion associated with?Pulmonary malignancy, or lymphatic drainage interference.
What does exudate mean?Increased permeability of pleural capillaries.
What does transudate mean?Increased pressure within the pleural capillaries causing pressure in the vessels to increase.
What effect does a large pleural effusion have on the lung?The lung gets compressed by the large volume of fluid.
Where does the fluid collect in a small pleural effusion?In the pleural space at the base of the lung.
What radiographic sign represents a pleural effusion?The meniscus sign.
On a lateral decubitus CXR, where does the pleural effusion collect?Against the lateral chest wall.
How does a pleural effusion appear on an ultrasound image?The lung and diaphragm will be separated by the black effusion.
What is a haemothorax?Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity.
What is atelectasis?The collapse of all or part of a lung.
What does atelectasis result in?Incomplete expansion due to alveolar collapse. causing reduced gas exchange.
What can cause obstructive atelectasis?Tumour, foreign body, or a mucus plug.
What signs on a CXR indicate atelectasis?1. Sail sign (left lower lobe collapse) and 2. Veil sign (Left lower lobe collapse).
What does COPD stand for?Chronic obstructive pulmonary diease.
What is COPD? And give three examplesA collection of lung diseases, including; chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and chronic obstructive airways disease.
What are 3 symptoms of COPD?1. SOBOE. 2. A persistant productive cough. 3. Frequent chest infections.
What is emphysema?A long term obstructive lung disease.
What is the most common cause of emphysema?Smoking
What is the effect of emphysema on the lungs?Gas exchange is reduced due to hyperinflation and distortion of the alveoli, resulting in less oxygen filtration into the blood.
What other sign is associated with emphysema?Hypertension.
What sign of emphysema can be seen on CT?The presence of bullae, as the alveoli have degenerated and gotten bigger.
What is surgical emphysema?A condition in which air gets trapped under the subcutaneous layer of the tissues.
What causes surgical emphysema?Chest trauma, or the insertion of a chest drain.
What is bronchiectasis?An abnormal widening of the airways.
What are the symptoms of bronchiectasis?SOB, and a productive cough.
What is associated with bronchiectasis?Increased mucus production.
Name five causes of bronchiectasis1. Childhood lung infections. 2. Immune system disorders. 3. Cystic fibrosis. 4. Idiopathic. 5. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
What is consolidation?A non-specific airspace opacification.
What materials can cause consolidation?Pus, serous fluid, blood, or cells.
Give 5 symptoms of consolidation1. SOB. 2. Productive cough. 3. Possible haemoptysis. 4. Fevers/chilld. 5. Weightloss.
What is pneumonia?An infection of the lungs characterised by inflammation of the alveoli due to the presence of pus/fluid.
Name two types of pneumoniaBacterial and viral.
Give 5 symptoms of pneumonia1. SOB. 2. Chest pain. 3. Productive cough with green/brown sputum. 4. Fever/chills. 5. Fatigue.
What radiographic sign indicates pneumonia?Air bronchogram (dark bronchioles made visible by the contrast against grey/white alveoli).
What are 3 reasons that CT should be used in the diagnosis of pneumonia?1. More sensitive than a CXR. 2. Demonstrates airways clearly. 3. Can assess lymph nodes for enlargement.
What diagnostic method is used to diagnose the cause of pneumonia?Lung needle biopsy.
What is pulmonary oedema?An abnormal fluid collection in the alveoli of the lungs.
What are two indications of pulmonary oedema?Low oxygen saturations and basal crackles on auscultation.
What is a common cause of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema?Congestive heart failure.
What can lung masses be caused by?Infection, tissue, RA.
What size classifies as a nodule?A lesion 3cm in size or less.
What are 2 characteristics of a benign nodule?1. Slow growing. 2. Smooth and regular shape.
What are 3 characteristics of a malignant nodule?1. Fast growing. 2. Irregular shape. 3. Rough surface.
What 3 lung cancers make up non small cell lung carcinoma?1. Adenocarcinoma. 2. Sqaumos cell carcinoma. 3. Large cell carcinoma.
What type of cells does adenocarcinoma start in?Goblet cells (cells that normally secrete mucus).
Which is the most common type of lung cancer seen in non smokers?Adenocarcinoma.
What cells does SCC develop from?Cells that line the airways.
Where does LCC develop?In any part of the body.
What does SCLC stand for?Small cell lung carcinoma.
Where does SCLC originate?The bronchi.
What are 4 other types of lung cancers?1. Carcinoid tumours. 2. Lymphomas. 3. Sarcomas. 4. Metastatic cancers.
What is the use of MRI in tumour assessment?Allows investigation of location and size.
What two modalities can be used in lung needle biopsies?Ultrasound and CT.
What is a biopsy?An procedure in which a sample of lung tissue is extracted for hisological analysis.
What is a pancoast tumour?A superior pumonary sulcus tumour.
What is pulmonary contusion?Haemorrhage of the alveoli and bruising of the lung due to trauma.
What is also associated with pulmonary contusion?Flail chest, rib fractures, and contre-coup injuries.
What is flail chest?When adjacent rib fractures causes part of the rib cage to float free from the chest wall.
Give 6 symptoms of pulmonary contusion1. Cyanosis. 2. Dyspnoea. 3. Tachycardia. 4. Wheezing. 5. Hypotension. 6. Haemoptysis.
How long does it take for pulmonary contusion to show on a CXR?6 hours post-injury.
Why is CT used in investigation of pulmonary contusion?It is highly sensitive, determines size, and can detect earlier than a CXR.
What is a radiographical sign of pulmonary emphysema?Overinflated lungs, a long thin heart, and a flattened diaphragm.
What is a radiographic sign of subcutaneous emphysema?Lucent stripes across soft tissue.
What is a sign of left upper lobe collapse?Veil sign
What is a sign of left lower lobe collapse?Sail sign
What is a sign of right upper lobe collapse?Elevated horizontal fissure, and a triangular density in right apex.
What is a sign of right middle lobe collapse?Lowered horizontal fissue, and a contrast in density between upper and lower lobes.
What is a sign of right lower lobe collapse?Loss of right costophrenic angle.