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Patho-revision

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medmaestro's version from 2015-11-03 04:32

Section

PATHOLOGY
HUMAN DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES
Question Answer
Nasal cancerisopropyl alcohol,wood dust
Lung caradon,asbestos,silica,bis-ether,nickel,arsenic,chromium,mustard gas,beryllium
COPDGrain dust ,coal dust,cadmium
Fibrosis of lungsilica,asbestos,cobalt
Bladder canaphthylamines,4-aminobiphenyl compounds,benzidine,rubber products
Male infertilitylead ,phthalate plasticizers,cadmium
Female infertilitylead,mercury
Leukemiabenzene
Liver angiosarcomavinyl chloride
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CHEMICAL CARCINOGENASSOCIATED CANCER
Aflatoxinhepatocellular carcinoma
Alkylating agentsmalignant lymphoma
ArsenicSkin ca,Lung ca,hemangiosarcoma
Asbestosbronchogenic ca ,pleural mesothelioma,GIT CA
Benzeneacute leukemia,Hodgkin lymphoma
Beryllium,chromium,nickel ,silicabronchogenic carcinoma
Cyclophosphamide,β naphthylaminetransitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder
Cadmiumprostate ca
Diethylstilbesterolclear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina,cervix,vaginal adenosis
Polycyclic hydrocarbonssquamous cell carcinoma –oral cavity,mid oesophagus,larynx,lung ; Adenocarcinoma-distal oesophagus,pancreas ; Transitional cell carcinomaurinary bladder,Renal pelvis;Squamous cell carcinoma of scrotal skin
Phenacetincancer of renal pelvis and bladder
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XANTHOMAS
Question Answer
XANTHOMA TYPEHYPERLIPIDEMIA TYPE
Eruptive xanthomasI , V
Tendon & Tuberous xanthomasII a
Palmar & Tuberoeruptive xanthomasIII
NO xanthomasII b , IV
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Question Answer
Xanthoma tendineumFH- Familial hypercholesterolemia (Type IIa)
Xanthalesma palpebrarumNormolipaemic (50%) or FH- Familial hypercholesterolemia,FD- Familial dysbetalipidemia
Xanthoma eruptivum or tubero eruptivumFD- Familial dysbetalipidemia,FHT- Familial combined Hypertriglyceridemia
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,FLD- Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency (rare)
Question Answer
Xanthoma striatum palmareFD- Familial dysbetalipidemia (Type III)
Xanthoma planum (generalized )patients often develop a monoclonal gammopathy associated with Myeloma(type III),Macroglobulinemia,or lymphoma,and with NORMAL plasma lipid levels.Less commonly FHT- Familial combined Hypertriglyceridemia may be present
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FH-Familial hypercholesterolemia
FD-Familial dysbetalipidemia
FHT-Familial combined Hypertriglyceridemia
FLD-Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency
GENETIC PREDISPOSITION

AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT CANCERS

Cancergene
RetinoblastomaRB
Li-Fraumeni syndromep53
Familial adenomatopus polyposisAPC
Neurofibromatosis 1 & 2NF-1 & NF-2
Breast cancerBRCA 1 , BRCA 2
MEN 1 & 2RET
HNPCCMSN2,MLH1,MSH6
NEVOID BASAL CELL CA SYNDROMEPATCH
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Question Answer
Autosomal Recessive CancersXeroderma pigmentosum ,Fanconi syn ,Bloom syn
Familial cancersbreast ca,ovarian ca,pancreatic ca
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  SOME PATHO MCQs
Question Answer
PhagocytosisMetchnikoff
4 cardinal signs of inflammation(calor,rubor,tumor,dolor)Celsus
Fith sign of inflammation – Loss of functionVirchow
Most destructive free radicalhydroxyl (OH-)
BEST neutralizer of OH – radicalVit C
Zone in liver most susceptible to hypoxic injuryZone III hepatocytes
Most variable phase in cell cycleG1
Most critical phase in cell cycleG1 to S phase
Fatty change of heart in anemiaTIGERED effect
Most effective bactericidal system in neutronphilsH2O2-MPO-Halide system
Selectinsresponsible for rolling of neutrophils
Β2-Integrinsneutrophil adhesion molecules
Delayed separation of umbilical cordselectin deficiency or CD11a-CD18 deficiency
Epitheloid cellsmacrophages activated by IFN γ from CD 4 helper cells
Keloidexcess type III Collagen
Chronic inflammation with neutrophiliaActinomycosis
Most abundant glycoprotein in basement membraneLAMININ
Ames testsimple invitro test for carcinogenicity –tests ability of carcinogen by their ability to induce mutations in salmonella typhimurium
Soldier’s plaquechronic pericarditis
Cor bovium (cow heart)tertiary syphilis due to AR
Tauton giant cellsin Xanthoma
Tart celllymphocyte in SLE
Gene for obesitydb gene
Zone 1 hepatocytesperiportal hepatocytes(near portal triad,outer side of lobule);most oxygenated;carry out oxidative metabolism,gluconeogenesis,urea synthesis
Zone 2 hepatocytemiddle zone in hepatic lobule
Zone 3 hepatocytepericentral (around central vein,near centre of lobule),least oxygenated-hence most susceptible for hypoxic injury,carry out drug metabolism,glycolysis,lipogenesis
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Question Answer
TYPES OF JOINTS IN BODY -HEAD-TO-TOE
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JOINT :: TYPE
Question Answer
Temporomandibular jointsCondylar (Bicondylar) synovial joint
Cricothyroid and cricoareytenoid jointSynovial joint
Atlanto-occipital joint, Wrist joint and Metacarpo-phalangeal jointEllipsoid joint
Sternoclavicular jointSaddle (sellar) joint
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Ear ossicles

Question Answer
Melleo-Incal jointSaddle type- Synovial joint
Incudo-stapedial jointBall and socket type – Synovial joint
Stapes footplateSyndesmosis
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Question Answer
Joint between ala of vomer and Rostrum of sphenoidSchindylesis (Wedge and groove suture)
Costo-vertebral jointPlane synovial joint
Costo-transverse jointSynovial joint
1st chondrosternal joint,,All Costochondral joints,,Spheno-occipital joint,Joint between epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bonePrimary cartilaginous joint / Synchondrosis / Hyaline cartilaginous joint.
2nd – 7th chondrosternal jointSynovial joint
5th – 9th costal cartilage articulationSynovial joint
10th costal cartilage is united to 9th costal cartilage byFibrous tissue.
Superior and inferior Radio-ulnar joints,Median Atlanto-axial jointPivot (Trochoid) joint
Middle radio-ulnar joint Syndesmosis
Sterno-clavicular jointSaddle joint
Elbow and Ankle jointHinge synovial joint
Hip jointBall and socket synovial joint
Knee jointCompound synovial joint-- 2 condylar joints between medial and lateral condyles of femur and tibia.; 1 saddle joint between femur and patella.
Superior Tibio-fibular jointPlane synovial joint
Middle Tibio-fibular jointFibrous joint
Inferior Tibio-fibular jointSyndesmosis
Talo-calcaneal / Subtalar jointPlane synovial joint
Calcaneo-cuboid jointSaddle joint
Talo-calcaneo-navicular jointBall and socket synovial joint
Other intertarsal jointsPlane synovial joint
Symphysis pubis, Sacro-coccygeal joint, Manubriosternal joint ,Intervertebral jointsSecondary cartilaginous joint / Symphyses / Fibrocartilagenous joint
COLLAGEN :: TISSUE DISTRIBUTION :: GENETIC DISORDERS
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FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN(1,2,3,5,9)

COLLAGENTISSUE DISTRIBUTIONGENETIC DISORDERS
Iubiquitous in hard and soft tissuesOsteogenesis Imperfecta,Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(Arthrochalasias type)
IIcartilage,intervertebral discs,vitreousAchondroplasias type II,Spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia syndrome
IIIhollow organs ,soft tissuesvascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Vsoft tissues,blood vesselsclassical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
IXCartilage,vitreousstickler syndrome
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BASEMENT MEMBRANE(4)

COLLAGENTISSUE DISTRIBUTIONGENETIC DISORDERS
IVBasement membraneALPORT SYNDROME
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OTHER COLLAGENS(6,7,9)

COLLAGENTISSUE DISTRIBUTIONGENETIC DISORDERS
VIMicrofibrilsBethlem myopathy
VIIAnchoring fibrils at dermo-epidermal junctionsDystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
IXCartilage,intervertebral discsmultiple epiphyseal dysplasias
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AUTOANTIBODIES
AUTOANTIBODIESDISEASE
Anti-Ach ReceptorMyasthenia Gravis
Anti-TSH ReceptorGrave’s Ds
Anti-Basement MembraneGood Pasture’s Syndrome
Anti-CentromereCREST Syndrome
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Anti-Endomysial (Ig A), Anti-Gliadin(Ig A), Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase(Ig A)
Question Answer
Anti-NuclearSLE,Systemic Sclerosis,Dermatomyositis
Anti-dsDNA; Anti-Smith(Sm)SLE
Anti-SS-A(Ro); Anti-SS-B(La)Sjogren’s syndrome
Anti- intrinsic factorAnti-pareital cellperinicious anemia
Anti-microsomal ; Anti-thyroglobulinHashimoto’s thyroiditis
Anti-topoisomerasesystemic sclerosis
Anti-mitochondrialprimary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-myeloperoxidase (p-ANCA)Microscopic polyangitis
Anti-proteinase-3 (c-ANCA)Wegener’s granulomatosis
Anti-ribonucleoproteinmultiple connective tissue disease(MCTD)
Anti-histidyl-t-RNA synthetase (Jo-1)Inflammatory myopathies
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FDA Approved molecular targeted drugs in cancer treatment
Drugmolecular targetdisease
All trans-retinoic acid(ATRA)PML –RARα OncogeneAML,M3
Imatinib,Dasatinib,NilotinibBcr-Abl,c-Abl,c-Kit,PDGFR - α/βCML,GIST
Sunitinibc-Kit,VEGFR-2, PDGFR - α/βGIST,Renal cell cancer
SorafenibRAF,VEGFR-2, PDGFR - α/β,Flt-3,c-KitRCC,Hepatocellular carcinoma
ErlotinibEGFRNon Small Cell Lung Ca,Pancreatic ca
GeftinibEGFRNon Small Cell Lung Ca
BortezomibProteasomeMultiple Myeloma
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MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

Question Answer Column 3
TranstuzumabHER2/neu (ERBB2)Breast cancer
CetuximabEGFRColon Ca,Squamous Cell Ca Of Head And Neck
PanitumumabEGFRColon ca
RituximabCD20B cell lymphomas & Leukemias that express CD20
AlemtuzumabCD52Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia And CD52 Expressing Lymphoid Tumours
BevacizumabVEGFColon ,Lung ,Breast Cancers
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DEFECTS IN LEUKOCYTE FUCTION
Question Answer
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency 1mutations in β chain of CD11/CD18 Integrins
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency 2mutations in fucosal transferase required for synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharide
Chronic Granulomatous disease –X Linkeddecreased oxidative burst;phagocyte oxidase(membrane component)
Chronic Granulomatous disease –Autosomal recessivedecreased oxidative burst;phagocyte oxidase(cytoplasmic component)
MPO Deficiencydecreased microbial killing because of defective MPO-H2O2 system
Chediak Higashi syndromedecreased leukocyte functions because of mutations affecting protein involved in lysosomal membrane traffic
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CANCERS ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTIOUS AGENTS
CONDITIONETIOLOGIC AGENTASSOCIATED NEOPLASMS
Opisthorchis,cholangitisliver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini)Cholangiosarcoma,colon carcinoma
Chronic cholecystitisbacteria,gall stonesgall bladder cancer
Gastritis/ulcershelicobacter pylorigastric adenocarcinoma,MALT
HepatitisHepatitis B & C virusHepatocellular carcinoma
Infectious MononucleosisEpstein Barr virusB-Cell NHL & HL
AIDSHIV,HHV 8NHL,Squamous cell carcinoma,Kaposi’s sarcoma
Osteomyelitisbacterial infectionCrcinoma in draining sinus
PID,Chronic cervicitisGonorrhoea ,Chlamydia,HPVOvarian carcinoma,Cervical / Anal cancer
Chronic cystitisSchistosomiasisbladder ,liver,rectal carcinoma
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INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SPECIFIC TYPE OF CANCERS
CANCERIMMUNE ABNORMALITYORGANISM
Multiple Myeloma,CLLHypogammaglobulinemiaS.pneumoniae,H.influenzae,N.meningitidis
AML Acute Myelocytic Leukemia OR ALL Acute Lymphocytic LeukemiaGranulocytopenia,skin and mucous membrane lesionExtracellular gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi
Hodgkin’s disease ,Hairy cell leukemiaAbnormal T cell functionIntracellular pathogens-M.tuberculosis,Listeria,Salmonella,Cryptococcus,M.avium
NHL,ALLGlucocorticoid chemotherapy ,T and B cell dysfunctionPneumocystis
Colon and rectal cancerslocal abnormalitiesStreptococcus bovis(bacteremia)
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