robbypowell's version from 2015-12-11 11:28


Question Answer
term: Ability to resist infectionsImmunity
reaction to self-antigens supplied chronicallyautoimmune disorders
Reactions to Exogenous Antigens that are not inherently pathogenichypersensitivity reactions

hypersensitivity reactions

Question Answer
Reactions to Exogenous Antigens that are not inherently pathogenichypersensitivity reactions
In _____ and ______ antigens are not destructive, but the responses to them cause tissue damageHypersensitivity; Autoimmunity
Two-step process that requires an adaptive immune response, because the response is to exogenous antigensHypersensitivity Reaction
Which step of hypersensitivity reactions are clinically silent?Step 1 (sensitization)
Which step of hypersensitivity reactions produce clinical symptoms and are pathological?Step 2 (pre-Sensitized Effector response)
Three out of four types of hypersensitivity reactions depend on the production of _____antibodies
"the pathologic process in any immune response associated pathology is _____"inflammation
T/F: Hypersensitivity reactions don't require adaptive immune response involvement.False! (they REQUIRE adaptive response which means they need to be sensitized)
Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by what immunoglobulin?IgE (when you think mast cells, think IgE)
Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions involve which T cells (step 1)?T-helper 2 (these switch B cells to IgE producers for the allergen/antigen)
What cells are the primary effector cells (2nd step) of Type 1 hypersensitivity?Mast cells
which mediators cause late-phase of Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction?Cytokines
which mediators cause immediate phase of hypersensitivity reaction?"Vasoactive amines" & "lipid mediators"
Most allergens are small, soluble ____ carried on dried particles (e.g. Dust mite feces & Parasite enzymes)proteins
IgE binds to what Mast cell receptor?FceR
What cells are effector for immediate phase (lasting 30 min to an hour) of Type 1 Hypersensitivity Reactions?Mast cells
What 3 cells are associated with the late phase response of Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions?recruited Eosinophils, Basophils, & Th2 cells
what immunoglobulin binds to FceR receptors?IgE (FceR on mast cells, assoc. w Type 1)
Allergic rhinitis, Asthma & Gastroenteritis are associated with what type Hypersensitivity reaction?Type 1
3 manifestations of anaphylaxisEdema, Bronchial constriction, Widespread vascular dilatation (leading to drop in blood pressure)
term: a predisposition to develop localized immediate hypersensitivity reactions to inhaled and ingested antigensAtopy
More ___-producing TH2 cells and higher Ig___ are signs of predisposition toward developing Type 1 HypersensitivitiesIL-4; IgE
4 "players" in type 2 hypersensitivity reaction?cell surface or matrix bound antibodies (IgG), complement, phagocytes, & NK cells
IgG-mediated destruction of red blood cells is associated with what type of hypersensivity?type 2
In what type of hypersensitivity reaction are opsonization of cell-surfaces and complement activation the main mechanisms?Type 2
Antigen-IgGimmune complex-mediated (not surface bound) are mediators for what type hypersensitivity reaction?type 3
what are mediators of type 3 hypersensitivity?antigen-antibody complexes
which Immunoglobulin is associated with antigen-antibody complexes of type 3 hypersensitivity?IgG
T/F: high antigen dose favors the development of type 1 hypersensitivityFalse (low dose favors IgE sensitization, high dose favors immunity)
T/F: repeated low antigen dose fosters the development of type 1 hypersensitivityTrue (favors IgE sensitization)
what effector cells are associated with Type 3 hypersensitivity?Neutrophils
Neutrophils interact with antigen-antibody complexes via what two receptors?C3b receptors (attach to compliment that attached to complex) & Fc receptors (attach to antibody)
small molecules like Nickel & Pentadecacatechol (poison ivy) that can cause type 4 hypersensitivityHaptens (contact hypersensitivity)
____ type hypersensitivity --> Swelling, erythema; cytokines made by Th1 cells activate macrophages; also Th17 cells (insect venom & mycobacterial molecules) (type 4)delayed type hypersensitivity (subset of type 4)
mediator of type 4 hypersensitivityT cells (Th1 and/or Th17)


Question Answer
reaction to self-antigens supplied chronicallyautoimmune disorders
autoimmune disorders affect ___ to ___% in every country2-5%
immunosuppression (treatment for autoimmune diseases) may increase susceptibility to ____ and _____infections & cancer
autoimmune mechanistic classifications correspond to hypersensitivity type reactions except for autoimmune don't have a corresponding reaction for hypersens type ___Type 1
umbrella term for various autoimmune and other noninfectious inflammatory conditions, including abnormal responses to commensal microorganismsImmune-mediated disorders
most common cause of HYPERthyroidism (in US)Graves disease (antibody mimics TSH)
Graves disease targets and activates what receptor?TSH-receptor (thyroid stimulating hormone)
most common cause of hypothyroidismHashimoto's Thyroiditis
T/F: Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is mediated by T-cells (cytotoxic)(CD8+), cytokines, and auto-antibodiesTrue
initial sensitization of SLE involves a subset of dendritic cells that produce ____IFN-alpha
a limited form of lupus, with ulcers on connective tissue and skin (looks very similar to SLE in head and neck area)Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
what cells are responsible for damage in Sjogren's Syndrome?CD4+ T cells
Sjogren's Syndrome patients have a 40x risk of what cancer?B cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis that predisposes to infection and canceranti-TNF alpha (but leads to long-term remission of arthritis)
excessively reduced blood flow in response to cold or emotional stress, causing discoloration of the fingers, & toesRaynaud's phenomenon (assoc. w Systemic Sclerosis or milder CREST syndrome)
Raynaud's phenomenon associated with what Auto-immune disease?Systemic Sclerosis
____ sign: tangential force (rubbing or blast of air) applied to mucosal surface causes separation of the epithelium from the underlying tissueNikolsky sign

which type hypersensitivity reaction?

Question Answer
mast cell degranulationtype 1
Allergic rhinitis, Asthma & Gastroenteritistype 1
IgE mediatedtype 1
Th2 switches B cells to production of IgEtype 1
allergic reactiontype 1
wheel, flare, and/or hives on skintype 1
cell-surface bound IgGtype 2
involves: Cell-or matrix-bound antibody, complement, phagocytes, NK cellsType 2
IgG-mediated destruction of red blood cellstype 2
could be a cause of hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopeniatype 2
caused by Side effect of some drugs (including penicillin)type 2
transfusion reactionstype 2
Arthus reaction (local response) & Serum sickness (systemic response)Type 3
delayed type hypersensitivitytype 4 (cell mediated)
cell-mediated hypersensitivitytype 4
Contact stomatitis to cinnamontype 4
poison ivytype 4 (contact dermatitis)
Contact stomatitis to aluminum chloridetype 4
insect venom reactiontype 4
swelling, erythema, vesicle bullae, blister-like due to cytotoxic T cells kill affected cells and produced cytokinesType 4
swelling, erythema, granulomatous HS reaction due to cytokines made by Th1 cells Type 4
Lost _____ or ____ tolerance can cause auto-immune diseasecentral; peripheral
cross-reactivity to self-antigen can result from what 5 viral diseases?EBV (Epstein-Barr), HCV (Hep. C), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), HIV & Mumps
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus clusters can be induced by what 3 viral infections?Rubella, CMV (Cytomegalovirus) and Coxsackie virus
Lost ____ tolerance = Stop killing off “overambitious” T and B cells during their developmentCentral
Lost ____ tolerance = Stop inducing anergy in B and T cells, Interfere with regulatory T cells
Question Answer
SLE and Graves more likely in what gender?Female (9:1)
Diabetes Mellitus (autoimmune) more likely in what gender?Male (only slightly)
term: Adhesions between bulbar and palpebral conjunctivaesymblepharon (assoc w Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid)

which mechanistic type(s) autoimmune reaction?

Question Answer
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia2
SLE3 & 2
Pernicious anemia2
Some forms of vasculitis3 & 2
Myasthenia gravis2
Graves disease2
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis3
Hashimoto thyroiditis4
Rheumatoid arthritis4
Type I diabetes mellitus4
Multiple sclerosis4
Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)4
Crohn disease4

which immunoglobulins are best at these functions?

Question Answer
neutralizationIgG and IgA
opsonizationIgG (and some IgA)
NK activationIgG
mast cell activationIgE (and some IgG)
complement activationIgG, IgA, and IgM


Question Answer
complement C1 Inhibitor problemHereditary Angioedema
Recurrent swelling of abdomen, face, extremities, genitalia, oropharynx, larynxHereditary Angioedema
3 most common sites of angioedema in hereditary angioedemaskin, abdomen and larynx
2 drugs that can induce angioedema (acquired)ACE inhibitors & NSAIDs
localized swelling... Typically unilateral, non-itching, non-pitting, often painlessHereditary Angioedema
autoimmune mechanistic classifications correspond to hypersensitivity type reactions except for autoimmune don't have a corresponding reaction for hypersens type ___Type 1
mechanism of Myasthenia gravis(type 2 autoimmune) Antibodies compete with Acetylcholine for Acetylcholine receptors (blocks transmission)
example of an autoimmune disease where antibodies block transmission of a signal(type 2 autoimmune) Myasthenia gravis
example of an autoimmune disease where antibodies act like hormone... propagating signal(type 2 autoimmune) Graves disease (--> hyperthyroidism)
autoimmune targeting and chronic activation of TSH receptorGraves disease (-->hyperthyroidism)
most common cause of hypothyroidismHashimoto's Thyroiditis (autoimmune)
many different Antibodies against DNA, histones, ribosomes, & ribonuclear proteinsSystemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)
malar rash (butterfly rash), photosensitivity, discoid rashSystemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)
autoreactive CD4+ T cells responsible for tissue damage of ductal cells of exocrine glandsSjogren's syndrome
chronic inflammation of synovium due to activated T cells, macrophages, and plasma cellRheumatoid Arthritis
IgM against IgG ... diagnostic factor for this condition(rheumatoid factor) Rheumatoid Arthritis
oral manifestations: anterior open bite due to condylar bone loss... flattened condyle due to bone resorptionRheumatoid Arthritis
excessive fibrosis in multiple tissues, obliterative vascular disease, and the production of multiple autoantibodiesSystemic Sclerosis (aka Scleroderma)
body develops autoantibodies against adhesion molecules, specifically ones located in hemidesmosomesMucous Membrane Pemphigoid
auto-immune condition with specific autoantibodies agains BP-230, BP-180, Laminin, and Beta4 IntegrinMucous Membrane Pemphigoid
vesicles, ulcers and bullae in mouth; symblepharon & inverted eye-lidsMucous Membrane Pemphigoid
Nikolsky signMucous Membrane Pemphigoid
Bullae without Nikolsky signBullous Pemphigoid
viral infection assoc with lichen planus & erythema multiformeHepatitis C virus
caused by antibodies against hemidesmosomes in basement membraneMucous Membrane Pemphigoid

Recent badges