robbypowell's version from 2015-12-10 19:21


Question Answer
3 types of cells that can be the origin of Neoplasia in GI tract1. Epithelial (lining cells) 2. Mesenchymal & 3. Neuroendocrine
3 types of precursor states for GI NeoplasiaMetaplasia, Dysplasia & Carcinoma in Situ
What type of cancer comes from epithelial lining cells in GI tract?Carcinoma
Reversible adaptive change from one type of tissue to anotherMetaplasia
Condition where part or all of the Esophagus lacks a lumenEsophageal Atresia
Condition where there is abnormal passage from Esophagus to Bronchial treeBronchogenic Fistula
Term meaning an abnormal connection between two areas in the bodyFistula
condition: protrusion of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm, compromising gastroesophageal sphincterHiatus Hernia
An outpouching of a lumen is called a ____Diverticulum
diverticulum of the mucosa of the pharynx, just above the cricopharyngeal muscleZenker's Diverticulum
Condition: Inflammation of the esophagusEsophagitis
2 viruses that can cause EsophagitisCMV (Cyto-Megalo Virus) & HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus)
condition: Metaplastic columnar epithelium above J-lineBarrett's Esophagus
3 main causes of SCC in esophagusSmoking, Dietary, & Chronic Irritation (acid reflux)
condition that is the Only recognized risk factor for esophageal AdenocarcinomaBarrett's Esophagus (metaplasia of distal esophagus)
patient with Barrett's esophagus has a ___ x greater risk for developing Esophageal Adenocarcinoma30-40x
Esophageal Adenocarcinoma is ___ to ___ % of Esophageal cancers5-10%
benign smooth muscle tumor (mesenchymal origin)Leiomyoma
tumor from Schwann cells (nerve supporting cells, mesenchymal origin)Schwannoma
What cells do GIST's (Gastro-intestinal Stromal Tumor) come from?Cells of Cajal (pacemakers of sm. muscle contraction in GI tract)
Patients with GIST are treated with ____ because of the ___ receptorGleevac; Tyrosine Kinase receptor (KIT+)
What cells do Carcinoid tumors come from?Neuroendocrine cells

Just the Stomach & more

Question Answer
What GI condition could be caused by use of broad spectrum antibioticsPseudomembrane Colitis
What pathogen is associated with Gastritis?Helicobacter Pylori
Chronic Gastritis Type A has what cause and is seen where in stomach?Autoimmune (against parietal cells, leading to Pernicious Anemia); Fundus
Chronic Gastritis Type B has what cause and is seen where in stomach?Helicobacter Pylori; Antrum
Microbe that can live in stomach and is protected from stomach acid by Urease coatingH. Pylori
A Urea Breath Test and Urea Biopsy test are useful for diagnosing what infection?Helicobacter Pylori
This peptic ulcer is most commonDuodenal
This peptic ulcer is associated with cancerGastric
What are the 2 peptic ulcers?Duodenal & Gastric
This type of peptic ulcer results from H. Pylori decreasing the mucus protection of the stomachGastric
Intractable pain associated with Peptic ulcer is suggestive of ____ penetrationPancreatic
In Pseudomembrane Colitis Normal flora relaced by overgrowth of what microbe?Clostridium difficile
What treatment will predispose someone to Pseudomembrane Colitis?Broad Spectrum antibiotics
MULTIORGAN BACTERIAL DISEASE affecting GI, CNS, cardiothoracic system, joints, & lymph nodesWhipple Disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
Pathogen causing Whipple Disease (multi-organ)Tropheryma Whippelii))
Patient presenting with Malabsorption, diarrhea, CNS involvement , CT, and migrating arthritisWhipple's Disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
Flattening of villi with crypt hypertrophy in response to Gluten intakeCeliac Disease
Celiac disease is caused by a reaction to ____Gluten
Patient with chronic diarrhea, bloating, and malabsorption should try removing what from diet?Gluten (Celiac disease)
Celiac disease sufferers are at a greater risk for what cancer?Small Bowel Lymphoma
What specific protein are there antibodies against in Celiac disease?Gliadin (part of gluten)
3 complications of Colonic DiverticulaBleeding, Obstruction, Fistula
Name for example of Diverticula in DuodenumMeckel's Diverticulum
What is cause of Meckel's diverticulum?Involution failure (congenital)
What diverticulitis can mimic appendicitis?Meckel's Diverticulitis
Colon diverticulitis is most common in what portion?Sigmoid Colon
hardening of feces into lumps of varying size inside the colonFecolith (or Fecoloma) (listed as cause of Acute Appendicitis)
worms that can cause appendicitisvermicularis
2 autoimmune Inflammatory Bowel Syndromes... 1 affects only colon and rectum, _____, while the other can affect the entire GI tract, ____Ulcerative Colitis; Crohn's disease
Autoimmune disease that has 90% of patients with chronic unrelenting inflammation of the colon... with the potential to induce glandular dysplasia leading to AdenocarcinomaUlcerative Colitis
patient presents with Blood loss; fluid and electrolyte imbalance & Toxic megacolon. has had frequent Bloody Mucoid DiarrheaUlcerative Colitis
autoimmune condition causing chronic Ileocolitis, SB, colon, perianal, & UGI irritationCrohn's disease
Mucosal linear ulceration of the GI tract, “cobblestone”, is trademark of what condition?Crohn's disease
Granulomas, fissures, & adhesions with fistulas of the GI tract in more than just colon suggest what condition?Crohn's disease (autoimmune)
Are females or males more frequently affected by Crohn's disease?females (slightly more affected)
Which has a greater chance for malignancy, Crohn's disease or Ulcerative Colitis?Ulcerative Colitis (both have risk, but UC greater risk)
Pharmaceutical Rx for treatment of Crohn's disease and Ulcerative ColitisRemicade (Inflixamib)
TWO MOLECULAR PATHWAYS TO COLONIC ADENOCARCINOMAAPC suppressor gene mutations & methylation of mismatch repair genes
Syndrome with 100 polyps affecting Entire gastrointestinal tract where 100% of patients proceed to carcinomaFamilial Polyposis Syndrome
Syndrome with polyps that are Hamartomas, melanosis of skin and oral mucosaPEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME
Example of Hereditary NON-POLYP-OSIS Colon CancerLYNCH SYNDROME
Is Lynch Syndrome acquired or hereditary?Hereditary
Genetic cause of Lynch SyndromeDNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) Defect
Hereditary condition with EARLY ONSET Colorectal Cancer (Adenocarcinoma)Lynch Syndrome (80% lifetime risk)
3 dietary contributors to Colonic AdenocarcinomaLow Fiber, High Refined Carbs (sugars), High Fat
Apple-core constriction of Colon lumen is a sign of what condition?Colonic Adenocarcinoma
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma affects what?Appendix
Anal Intercourse & subsequent contraction of HPV 16 can lead to what type of cancer?Anal SCC
CHOLELITHIASIS, most common causeCholesterol stone (80%) (the rest are Bilirubin pigmented stone)
most common type of ACUTE CHOLECYSITISAcute calculous cholecystitis (>90%)
Condition: Acute onset of colicky pain after fatty meal, Nausea and vomiting of bilious materialAcute Cholecystitis
Recurrent colicky RUQ pain after fatty mealChronic Cholecystitis (usually Gallstones are cause)
sequelae of common duct stone obstructioncholangitis (infection of bile duct), Hepatic Abscess, Chronic Liver disease
Choledocholithiasis is a condition where the patient has ____ stoneCommon Duct
_____ tumor arises at the bifurcation of right and left common hepatic ducts and is associated with painless jaundiceKlatskin
tumor that Arises from intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary treeChol-angio-carcinoma
Enzymatic necrosis of pancreatic parenchyma...Acute Pancreatitis
Necrosis of fat; with saponification is associated with necrosis in what organ?Pancreas
Most common cause of Acute PancreatitisAlcoholism --> gallstones
elevated amylase and lipase; Hypocalcemia, elevated bilirubin, hyperglycemia are useful diagnostic indicators for ____Acute Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is most commonly caused by ____Alcoholism
pain in abdomen with elevated biliruben & CA 19-9 (cancer antigen 19-9)Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Diabetes can be caused by chronic inflammation of what organ?Pancreas

are these polyps precancerous?

Small smooth protuberances
Older age
Question Answer
Delayed shedding of benign cells; infoldingsN
Children below 5-years of ageN (juvenile)
Abnormal growth of mixture of tissue elementsN (Hamartoma)
Hamartoma polypsN
Pedunculated or SessileY
Tubular, Villous or TubulovillousY

crohn's vs UC

Question Answer
affects Entire GI tractCrohn's Disease
“Skip lesions”Crohn's Disease
“Cobblestone” mucosaCrohn's Disease
TransmuralCrohn's Disease
FisutlasCrohn's Disease
Perianal lesionsCrohn's Disease
affects only ColonUlcerative Colitis
affects Rectum – proximal colonUlcerative Colitis
Ulcers, pseudopolypsUlcerative Colitis
No fistulasUlcerative Colitis
No perianal lesionsUlcerative Colitis
Total colectomy curativeUlcerative Colitis