robbypowell's version from 2015-11-11 06:34


Question Answer
Case: woman w/ huge abdominal girth & swollen legs & feet. died of DVT that immobilized to RA & lungs. Benign Ovarian Cystadenoma compressed which vessel to cause DVT?Inferior Vena Cava
detached intravascular mass (or air bubble or whatever) carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of originEmbolism
organized blood clot (thrombus) that breaks off from the wall and gets stuck somewhere else causing blockagethromboembolism
___% of embolisms arise from a thrombus99%
Most thromboembolisms come from where?Deep Leg Veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis)
Caisson disease is an example of ____ embolismgas
Possible source of embolism in mother following delivery of babyAmniotic fluid
Most common cause of Pulmonary ThromboembolismDeep Vein Thrombosis ((95%)
organized coagulation and fibrin formation of platelets that form in test tubes outside the body, not inside the bodyClot
clot inside the body , light areas are fibrin and platelets, the darker area are red blood cellsThrombus
In a thrombus light areas are ___ & ___fibrin and platelets
In a thrombus dark areas are _____Erythrocytes (RBC's)
Pulmonary embolism causes ___ deaths/yr in US50,000
Are Pulmonary embolism deaths expected or unexpected?Unexpected
what proportion of Pulmonary thromboembolisms are diagnosed before death?1/3
Drug treatment for Pulmonary thromboembolismsAnticoagulants
3 risk factors for Pulmonary Thromboembolismprolonged bed rest, surgery on legs, CHF
T/F: superficial varicose veins are prone to cause Pulmonary ThromboembolismFALSE (thromboembolisms form in Deep veins... these are superficial)
Most common "preventable cause of death"Pulmonary Thromboembolism
____ (what aspect) of thromboembolus determines where it embolizes (gets stuck)size (once it hits vessel small enough for it to occlude)
Pulmonary Thromboembolism death is secondary to rapid onset of ____ sided heart failure and subsequent _____Right-sided HF; Arrhythmia
_________ to _________% of Pulmonary Thromboembolism associated with sudden death5-10%
Thrombus is formed of organized layers of ____, ____, & ____RBC's; Platelets & Fibrin
localized area of necrosis (cell death) resulting from occlusion of arterial supplyInfarct
Gross Appearance of Pulmonary InfarctRed (aka Hemorrhagic)
Why are Pulmonary Infarcts RED infarcts?B/c of dual blood supply (pulmonary arteries & bronchial arteries)
Pulmonary Infarct is associated with ____ necrosis ("microscopic")Coagulative necrosis
Every organ of the body except the ____ undergoes coagulative necrosis from an infarct.. this organ instead undergoes liquefactive necrosisBrain
As a result of an infarct, the brain undergoes ____ necrosisLiquefactive
Is primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension most common?Secondary (primary is idiopathic 5%)
Cardiac anomaly (left to right shunt :VSD,ASD PDA), Vasculitis, Chronic interstitial lung disease, Recurrent pulmonary thromboemboli are all secondary causes of Pulmonary _____Hypertension
Medial Hyperplasia & Intimal Hyperplasia are two _____ morphologies of Pulmonary Hypertension; all other morphologies are ____Reversible; Irreversible
What are the only 2 reversible morphologies of Pulmonary Hypertension?Medial & Intimal Hyperplasia
Markedly prominent arteries in the lungs are a sign of Pulmonary ____Hypertension
Failing ventricle can not eject the normal volume of venous blood delivered to it in diastoleCongestive Heart Failure
____ ____ ___ --> Elevated end-diastolic cardiac pressure & Elevated venous pressureCongestive Heart Failure
Systemic hypertension could cause ____ sided CHFLeft sided
Mitral or aortic valve disease could cause ____ sided CHFLeft
Ischemic heart disease could cause _____ sided CHFLeft
Primary disease of myocardium could cause _____ sided CHFLeft
the sensation of breathlessness in the recumbent position, relieved by sitting or standingOrthopnea
shortness of breathDypsnea
Cardiac Arrhythmias, Dyspnea, and Orthopnea are clinical signs of _____ sided CHFLeft
Hemosiderin laden intraaveolar macrophages are associated with what condition?Chronic Pulmonary Edema (resulting from LEFT CHF)
Heart failure cells can be seen where?Alveolar spaces
Heart failure cells are special in that they contain ____Hemosiderin (comes from the Lysis of red blood cells)
Sign of Acute Pulmonary Edema (in tissue)Congested/Edematous lungs
Sign of Chronic Pulmonary Edema, presence of what cells where?Heart Failure cells (hemosiderin laden inter alveolar macrophages) in Alveolar space
T/F: a heart with CHF will have hypertrophyTrue
Noninflammatory Transudate of pulmonary edema has high/low protein content?Low
Heart failure cells would be apparent on a slide when staining for what metal?Iron (hemosiderin rich in iron)
cor pulmonale is what?Enlarged Right Heart


Question Answer
Infection in the lung parenchymaPneumonia
Where would bacterial pneumonia be seen?Broncho-lobular
Where would viral pneumonia be seen?Interstitium
Pneumonia accounts for what proportion of deaths in US?1/6th
Microbe responsible for Community Acquired Acute PneumoniaStreptococcus Pneumoniae (bacterial)
Underlying chronic disease associated with Community Acquired Acute PneumoniaCHF
Decreased or absent splenic function(auto infarction of spleen) (sickle cell disease) can result from what pulmonary condition?Community Acquired Acute Pneumonia
patchy, bilateral, basal pneumonia is ____ PneumoniaLobular (Bronchpneumonia)
pneumonia that involves entire or most of lobe is ____ pneumoniaLobar Pneumonia
Suppurative exudate in pleural cavity, unique complication, accumulation of exudate in lung tissuePneumonia
dilation of bronchiBronchiectasis
snow flake patches of pneumoniaLobular
patchy pneumonia affecting smaller areas of lung (mostly in base) is ____ pneumonia, while pneumonia that affects whole lobes is _____ PneumoniaLobular; Lobar
Non-inflammatory exudate (low protein content, low specific gravity) is associated with what conditions?Pulmonary Edema & CHF
Inflammatory exudate (high protein content, high specific gravity and purulence) is associated with what condition?Pneumonia
localized area of supporative (meaning pus and neutrophils)necrosis that forms cavitationAbscess
3 microbes that can cause lung abscessStaph, Klebsiella & Pseudomonas
Bronchitis is associated with what type of pneumonia?Lobular (not Lobar)
suppurative inflammation of pleuraPleuritis
Suppurative exudate in pleural cavityEpema
Epema and Pleuritis associated with what lung condition?Pneumonia
Genetic disease that makes one more likely to contract Pneumonia repeatedlyCystic fibrosis
Alveolar space free of cellular exudate, but interstitial space with elevated white cell countViral Pneumonia
Most common microbe that causes Viral PneumoniaMycoplasma
Necrotizing pneumonia where patient aspirates gastric contents and is markedly debilitated is ___ pneumoniaAspiration Pneumonia
Nosocomial Pneumonia is ____ acquiredHospital acquired
Microbial Cause of Tuberculosis for non-AIDS patientsMycobacterial tuberculosis hominis
intracellular Microbial cause of TB for AIDS patientsM. Avium
Tuberculosis is associated with ___ necrosisCaseous
Tuberculosis affects the ___ of the lung primarily and the ____ lymph nodesMiddle; Peribronchial
Caseus granulomatous inflammation is associated with what Pulmonary disease?Tuberculosis
Calcified lesion and associated lymph node associated with TuberculosisGhon Complex
Calcified lesion associated with TuberculosisGhon Lesion
Ghon Lesions in middle or lower part of lung associated with primary or secondary tuberculosis?Primary
lung Cavitation and involvement in the upper lobes of lungs associated with primary or secondary tuberculosis?Secondary
Fungal infection that affects immunocompromised patients and is tested with India ink stainCryptococcis
Budding yeast type of fungal infection that affects immunocompromised patientCryptococcis
Pseudo Hyphae yeast infectionCandidiasis
Opportunistic mold infection with Nonseptate hyphae that Branch at right anglesMucor-myosis
Opportunistic mold infection with Septate hyphae that Branch at acute anglesAspergillosis
Opportunistic ____ infections invade blood vessels and create infarctionsMold (Mucorymosis & Aspergillosis)
3 types of Dimorphic Fungi that can cause infectionsHistoplasma, Coccidioides, & Blastomyces
A herpes virus that can cause pneumonia, known for its intranuclear "owl eye inclusions"Cytomegalovirus
affected cells are enlarged with intracellular inclusions and intranuclear "owl eye" inclusionsCytomegalovirus
an infection with inter alveolar foamy exudate that shows up on silver stain is from what microbe?Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Viruses lead to interstitial pneumonia characterised by _____ (cell type) responseLymphocyte
____ lead to lobar or lobular pneumonia (big picture)Bacteria
____ lead to interstitial pneumonia characterized by lymphocyte response (big picture)Viruses
____ is associated with caseous granulomatous inflammationTuberculosis
Opportunistic fungal and viral infections are found in ______ patientsImmunocompromised
Is Aspergillus or Mucormyosis narrower histologically?Aspergillus
Is Aspergillus or Mucormyosis broader histologically?Mucormyosis


Question Answer
In Chronic bronchitis and asthma how lung function impaired?Airway resistance increased
In emphysema, how is lung function impaired?Elastic recoil lost
Obstruction of small airways by Bronchospasm or Mucus plugging (condition)Asthma
Low grade chronic inflammation is associated with what Chronic Obstructive lung disease?Asthma
Charot-Leyden crystals (EOS granules) and Curshmann spirals (mucus plugs) associated with what chronic obstructive lung disease?Asthma
Permanent dilatation of air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole with Destruction of tissue in absence of scarring... what Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease?Emphysema
Loss of elastic recoil associated with what Chronic Obstructive lung disease?Emphysema
Most common form of Emphysema Associated with cigarette smoking, & chronic bronchitisCentri-acinar
Form of Emphysema (not most common) associated with smoking and congenital deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsinPanacinar Emphysema
Cough productive of sputum on most days for 3 months of the year for at least 2 years means what?Chronic Bronchitis
Hyperplasia of bronchial mucus glands caused by what Obstructive Lung disease?Chronic Bronchitis
Squamous metaplasia of bronchial mucosa associated with what Obstructive lung disease?Chronic Bronchitis
Honeycomb Lung is associated with ______ lung diseaseRestrictive
Reduced compliance in lung, Difficulty in expanding lung & Honeycomb lung are features of ____ lung diseaseRestrictive
Interstitial fibrosis caused by dust inhalationPneumoconiosis
Inhalation of quartz containing dust resulting in multiple fibrous nodulesSilicosis
Pleural plaques, pleural effusions, progressive chronic fibrosis, malignant mesothelioma, carcinoma associated with what form of Pneumoconiosis?Asbestosis
Ferruginous bodies associated withAsbestos Pneumoconiosis
Most common cause of death from cancer in industrialized nationsLung Carcinoma
If smokers who smoke fewer than 20 cigs/day stop, increase risk of cancer decreases reaching that of non-smoker in ___ years13 years
T/F: For passive smokers, the risk of lung cancer is twice as greatTrue
In Lung cancer _________% tumors arise in relation to main bronchi; _________% tumors arise in peripheral airways70%; 30%
Most common histological form of lung cancer (50%)Squamos Cell Carcinoma
term: coughing up bloodHemoptysis
Hemoptysis, Dyspnea, Cough & Chest pain are signs of...Lung Cancer

dimorphic fungal pathogens

Question Answer
Dimorphic Small yeast, 2 to 5 microns; found in Ohio, central Mississippi River valley, southeast U.S.Histoplasma
Dimorphic Nonbudding spherules, 20 to 60 microns; found in Southwest U.S., San Joaquin ValleyCoccidoides
Dimorphic Broad-based budding fungus, 5 to 25 microns found in Ohio, central Mississippi River valley, southeast U.SBlastomyces

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