robbypowell's version from 2015-11-05 20:22

cardio cont

Question Answer
Why is Transposition of Great Vessels life threatening and requiring immediate surgery?aorta pumps de-oxygenated blood to the body
____ defect can alleviate Patent Ductus Arterioles and Transposition of Great vesselsSeptal Defect
Heart outside mediastinum (in abdomen or diaphragm)Ectopia Cordis
Heart apex pointed toward right sideDextrocardia
Visceral Organs develop on wrong sideSitus Invertus Totalis
What is the most common cyanotic congenital heart anomaly in children?Teratology of Fallot
Is Teratology of Fallot life threatening?no, most survive into adulthood
In teratology of Fallot, Clinical symptoms are directly related to the degree of the ..right ventricular flow obstruction
4 components of Teratology of FallotVSD, Rightward displaced aorta, Pulmonary artery stenosis, Consequent right ventricular hypertrophy
is blood turbulence great in Teratology of Fallot?yes
Do patients with Teratology of Fallot need prophylactic antibiotics for dental treatment?Yes

Terms describing observed skin lesions (handout)

Question Answer
Traumatic lesion breaking the epidermis and causing a red linear mark (i.e., a deep scratch); often self-inflicted.Excoriation
lack of distinct edge separating the lesion from surrounding tissueIll-defined (border)
a cleft in a smooth border outlineNotched (border)
Thickened and rough skin characterized by prominent skin markings; usually the result of repeated rubbing Lichenification (see under “Lichen Simplex Chronicus”).
Flat, circumscribed area distinguished from surrounding skin by color. Smaller ones are called ____, larger ones are referred to as a ____.Macules; Patch
multiple finger-like projectionsPappillary
Elevated dome- or flat-topped lesion 5 mm or less in diameter.Papule
Elevated dome- or flat-topped lesion greater than 5 mm in diameterNodule
Elevated flat-topped lesion, usually greater than 5 mm in diameter.Plaque
the base diameter is less than the diameter of the lesionPedunclated
Discrete, pus-filled raised lesion.Pustule
Dry, horny, excrescence; usually the result of imperfect cornificationScale
the base diameter equal or greater than the diameter of the lesionSessile (exophytic lesions)
similar to papillary, but pointed tips and often broad, large lesionsVerrucous
Fluid-filled raised area 5 mm or less in diameter.Vesicle
Fluid-filled raised area greater than 5 mm in diameterbulla
common language term for both vesicles and bullae."Blister"
the opposite of ill-definedWell-defined
erythematous, edematous and pruritic (itchy) papule or plaqueWheel

Microscopic features of skin lesions/disorders


Question Answer
Loss of intercellular adhesion of keratinocytes.Acantholysis
Thickening of the spinous epithelial layer.Acanthosis:
Abnormal keratinization occurring prematurely within individual cells or groups of cells below the stratum granulosum.Dyskeratosis:
Irregular extensions of lesion between normal surrounding structuresInfiltrative:
nests of melanocytes at the epithelial-connective tissue interface Junctional activity:
Surrounded by a developmental connective tissue structure called a capsule; applied to organs, not lesionsEncapsulated:
Hyperplasia of the stratum corneum, often associated with a qualitative abnormality of keratin.Hyperkeratosis:
Linear melanocyte proliferation along the epidermal basal cell layer; can occur as a reactive change or as part of a melanocytic neoplasm.Lentiginous:
melanocyte migration into the spinous layers of surface epitheliumPagetoid spread:
Surface elevation caused by hyperplasia and enlargement of dermal papillae.Papillomatosis:
Keratinization characterized by retention of the nuclei in the stratum corneum. (Note that keratinizing portions of the oral mucosal squamous epithelium are normally parakeratinized.) Parakeratosis:
Intercellular edema of the epidermis.Spongiosis:

palpation descriptions

Question Answer
A pathologic space filled with fluid or other material (sloughed cells, etc.)Cyst-like:
a pathologic space lined by epithelium, usually containing fluid or other materialCystic:
Texture similar to contracted muscleFirm (rubbery)
Does not move independent of surrounding soft or hard tissues Fixed:
feels like filled with fluidFluctuant:
Bone-like textureHard:
Very firm, or bone-like texture with fixed presentation
Opposite of fixedMobile or moveable:
Similar to the texture of fatSoft (doughy, spongy)
Painful upon palpationTender:

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